The Albanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used to write the Albanian language. It consists of 36 letters: Capital letters A B C Ç D Dh E Ë F G Gj H I J K L Ll M N Nj O P Q R Rr S Sh T Th U V X Xh Y Z Zh Lower case letters a b c ç d dh e ë f g gj h i j k l ll m n nj o p q r rr s sh t th u v x xh y z zh IPA value a b t͡s t͡ʃ d ð ɛ ə f ɡ ɟ͡ʝ h i j k l ɫ m n ɲ ɔ p c ɹ r s ʃ t θ u v d͡z d͡ʒ y z ʒ Note: The vowels are shown in bold. Listen to the ...
The Albanian language does not have a unique alphabet - the alphabet it uses is the Latin alphabet (albeit supplemented through the use of diacritics and digraphs). The subject of this article is how the Latin alphabet is used to represent the sounds of the Albanian language, which is, by definition, its orthography .
- French and Dutch
In Afrikaans, the trema (Afrikaans: deelteken, [ˈdiəl.tiəkən]) is used mostly to indicate that the vowel should not be diphthongised: geër ("giver") is pronounced [χeər], and geer (a wedge-shaped piece of fabric) is pronounced [χiːr]. Sometimes, however, the deelteken does not change the pronunciation. For example in reën ("rain"), which is pronounced [reən]. The nonexistent word *reen would have been pronounced identically, and the deelteken is only etymological since the archaic form of reën is regen. The deelteken indicates the removal of g, and some older people still pronounce reën in two syllables ([ˈreː.ən]). The deelteken does exactly what it means in Afrikaans (separation mark") by marking the beginning of a new syllable and by separating it from the previous one. For example, voël ("bird") is pronounced in two syllables. Without the deelteken, the word would become voel("feel"), which is pronounced in one syllable.
Ë is the 8th letter of the Albanian alphabet and represents the vowel /ə/. It is the most commonly used letter of the language, comprising 10 percent of all writings.
Ë is a phonetic symbol also used in the transcription of Abruzzese dialects and in the Province of Ascoli Piceno (the ascolano dialect). It is called "mute E" and sounds like a hummed é. It is important for the prosody of the dialect itself.
Ë is used in Romagnol to represent [ɛː~ɛə], e.g. fradël [fraˈdɛəl~fraˈdɛːl] "brother". In some peripheral Emilian dialects, ë is used to represent [ə], e.g. strëtt[strətː] "narrow".
Use of the character Ë in the English language is relatively rare. Some publications, such as the American magazine The New Yorker, use it more often than others. It is used to indicate that the e is to be pronounced separately from the preceding vowel (e.g. in the word "reëntry", the feminine name "Chloë" or in the masculine name "Raphaël"), or at all - like in the name of the Brontë sisters, where without diaeresis the final ewould be mute.
Ë appears in words like French Noël and Dutch koloniën. This so-called trema is used to indicate that the vowel should not be monophthonged. For example, Noël is pronounced [nɔɛl], whilst Noel would be pronounced [nœl]. Likewise, koloniën is pronounced [koːˈloːniən], whilst kolonien would be pronounced [koːˈloːnin].
Ë occurs in the official German alphabet. In German, a diaeresis above e occurs in a few proper names and ethnonyms, such as Ferdinand Piëch, Bernhard Hoëcker, Alëuten, Niuë. Occasionally, a diaeresis may be used in some well-known names, such as Italiën, which is usually written as Italien). Without a diaeresis, ie would be [iː] instead of [iə]; eu would be [ɔʏ] instead of [eu] and ae, oe, ue would be alternative representations of respectively ä, ö, ü.
Ë does not belong to the official Hungarian alphabet, but is usually applied in folklore notations and sometimes also in stylistic writing, e.g. is extensively used in the vocal oeuvre of Kodály. The reason is that open e(close to English hat, cat, cap) and closed ë (close to Spanish e) are distinguished in most spoken dialects, but is not indicated in writing because of the history of writing and due to little but observable areal variation.
In many editions of Latin texts, the diaeresis is used to indicate that ae and oe form a hiatus, not a diphthong (in the Classical pronunciation) or a monophthong (in traditional English pronunciations). Examples: aër "air", poëta "poet", coërcere"to coerce".
In the Lenape language, the letter ë is used to represent the schwa vowel. An example of its use is the word mikwën, which means "feather". It can also be found in more complex words, such as ntëmpëm, which means "my brain".
English approximation b: b: bat c: q: skew d: d: debt dz: x: goods: dʒ: xh: jet ð: dh: then f: f: far ɡ: g: go h: h: hat j: j: yes ɟ: gj: argue k: k: scar l: l: lean ɫ: ll: wool: m: m: man n: n: not ɲ: nj: onion ŋ: ng: bang: p: p: spend r: rr: rolled r: ɾ: r: American hottest: s: s: son ʃ: sh: show t: t: stand ts: c: hats: tʃ: ç: chin v: v: van z: z: zip ʒ: zh: vision θ: th: thin
The Caucasian Albanian script was an alphabetic writing system used by the Caucasian Albanians, one of the ancient Northeast Caucasian peoples whose territory comprised parts of present-day Azerbaijan and Dagestan. It was used to write the Caucasian Albanian language and was one of only two native scripts ever developed for speakers of an indigenous Caucasian language, the other being the Georgian scripts. The Armenian language, the third language of the Caucasus with its own native script, is a
Like English, Albanian has dental fricatives /θ/ (like the th in thin) and /ð/ (like the th in this), written as th and dh, which are rare cross-linguistically. Gheg uses long and nasal vowels, which are absent in Tosk, and the mid-central vowel ë is lost at the end of the word. The stress is fixed mainly on the last syllable.
Albanian language. The Albanian language ( Shqip) is an Indo-European language. It is spoken mostly in Albania (3,500,000), Kosovo and (500,000) Republic of North Macedonia . The dialects of the Albanian language. (The map does not indicate where the language is majority or minority.) This article contains IPA phonetic symbols.
- Older Versions of The Alphabet in Latin Characters
- Older Versions of The Alphabet in Greek Characters
- Older Versions of The Alphabet in Cyrillic Characters
- Older Versions of The Alphabet in Arabic Characters
- Keyboard Layouts
- See Also
- External Links
The history of the Albanian alphabet is closely linked with the influence of religion among Albanians. The writers from the North of Albania used Latin letters under the influence of the Catholic Church, those from the South of Albania under the Greek Orthodox church used Greek letters, while others used Arabic letters under the influence of Islam. There were also attempts for an original Albanian alphabet in the period of 1750-1850. The current alphabet in use among Albanians is one of the two variants approved in the Congress of Monastirheld by Albanian intellectuals from November 14 to 22 November 1908, in Monastir (Bitola, Macedonia).
Before the standardisation of the Albanian alphabet, there were several ways of writing the sounds peculiar to Albanian, namely c, ç, dh, ë, gj, ll, nj, q, rr, sh, th, x, xh, y, z and zh.
Orthodox Albanians in the south of the country used the Greek alphabet to write in Albanian. The letters ξ and ψ were also used to represent modern letter combinations ks and ps, respectively.
Modern Albanian: Albanian written in Cyrillic script a а b б c ц ç ч d д dh e е ë ъ f ф g г gj гї, гj, ђ h х i ї, и j ѣ, j k к l л, љ ll л m м n н nj нї, њ o о p п q кї, ћ r р rr рр s с sh ш t т th ө u у v в x дс xh џ y z з zh ж
Modern Albanian - Albanian written in the alphabet called Elifbaja shqip a آ b ب c تس ç چ d د dh ذ e َا ë f ف g غ gj ﻚ h ﻫ i ِ ا j ى k ڧ l لل ll lj ل m م n ن nj نى o p ٻ q ﮎ r ر rr رر s س sh ش t ت th ث u او v و x دس xh ج y َ و z ز zh ژ
The Albanian keyboard layout is German based (QWERTZ). The specific Albanian characters are directly accessible (ë, Ë, ç, Ç).
A preferable alternative to the default one is Prektora, a (QWERTY) keyboard layout for Windows 7, Vista, XP and 2000 (in 32 and 64 bit) (ë, Ë, ç, Ç, é, É, ô, Ô, â, Â).
JLG Extended Keyboard Layout
The JLG Extended Keyboard Layoutis a layout working on a US keyboard layout. This layout allows to make all specific Albanian characters. 1. ë = CTRL + " then e, or Alt + 0235 2. Ë = CTRL + " then E, or Alt + 0203 3. ç = CTRL +, then c, or Alt + 0231 4. Ç = CTRL +, then C, or Alt + 0199Van Christo, "The Long Struggle for the Albanian Alphabet", formerly available at ; archived at The Long Struggle for the Albanian Alphabet. Christo in turn says "Much of the above material was exc...Robert Elsie, "Albanian Literature in Greek Script: the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth-Century Orthodox Tradition in Albanian Writing", Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 15:20 (1991) .Christophoridēs, Kōnstantinos, Psalteri, këthyem mbas ebraishtesë vietërë shqip ndë gegënishte prei Konstantinit Kristoforidit, Constantinople, 1872.Macrakis, Stavros M., "Character codes for Greek: Problems and modern solutions" in Macrakis, 1996. Includes discussion of the Greek alphabet used for languages other than Greek. writingsystems.net
Creation of the Albanian alphabet Vasa as a member of the Committee for Defending Albanian Rights was appointed along with Sami Frashëri, Jani Vreto and Hasan Tahsini to create an Albanian alphabet which by 19 March 1879 the group approved Frashëri's 36 letter alphabet consisting mostly of Latin characters.
Below is a table showing the Albanian alphabet and how it is pronounced in English, and finally examples of how those letters would sound if you place them in a word. Standard Albanian has 7 vowels and 29 consonants. Gheg uses long and nasal vowels which are absent in Tosk.Albanian AlphabetEnglish SoundPronunciation ExampleAaas in farBbas in bootCt͡sas in batsÇt͡ʃas in chat