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  1. Antarctica - Wikipedia › wiki › Antarctica

    Antarctica (/ æ n ˈ t ɑːr t ɪ k ə / or / æ n ˈ t ɑːr k t ɪ k ə / ()) is Earth's southernmost continent.It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.

  2. Antarctica - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Antarctica
    • Geography and Geology
    • Ancient Antarctica
    • Life in Antarctica
    • History of Its Discovery

    Antarctica is covered by an ice sheet about four kilometres thick. Under the ice it is mostly land, although the ice shelves are over the ocean. The Transantarctic Mountains divide the land between East Antarctica in the Eastern Hemisphere and West Antarctica in the Western Hemisphere. Antarctica has some important features hidden by the ice. One is Lake Vostok, which has been covered by ice for at least 15 million years. The lake is 250 km long and 50 km wide. Another is the huge Gamburtsev mountain chain, which are the size of the Alps, yet entirely buried under the ice. The Gamburtsev range has a nearby massive rift valley similar to the East African Great Rift Valley. It is called the Lambert system. Scientists used radarthat can work under ice to survey the whole of Antarctica.

    Scientists say Antarctica used to be much further north and much warmer, moving to where it is now through continental drift. From 2011 to 2013, scientists collected fossils of frogs, water lilies, and shark and ray teeth, showing that these life forms used to live on Antarctica. The frog fossils were about 40 million years old. Scientists say marsupials, animals that keep their babies in pouches, could have started in South America, migrated to a warm ancient Antarctica, and gone to Australia from there.


    Few land plants grow in Antarctica. This is because Antarctica does not have much moisture (water), sunlight, good soil, or a warm temperature. Plants usually only grow for a few weeks in the summer. However, moss, lichen and algae do grow. The most important organisms in Antarctica are the planktonwhich grow in the ocean.


    One important source of food in the Antarctic is the krill, which is a general term for the small shrimp-like marine crustaceans. Krill are near the bottom of the food chain: they feed on phytoplankton and to a lesser extent zooplankton. Krill are a food form suitable for the larger animals for whom krill makes up the largest part of their diet. Whales, penguins, seals, and even some of the birdsthat live in Antarctica, all depend on krill. Whales are the largest animals in the ocean, and in...

    For a long time, people had believed that there was a great continent in the far south of Earth. They thought this Terra Australis would "balance" the lands in the north like Europe, Asia and North Africa. People have believed this from the times of Ptolemy (1st century AD). He suggested this idea to keep the balance of all known lands in the world. Pictures of a large land in the south were common in maps. In the late 17th century, people discovered that South America and Australia were not part of the mythical "Antarctica". However, geographersstill believed that Antarctica was much bigger than it really was. European maps continued to show this unknown land until Captain James Cook's ships, HMS Resolution and Adventure, crossed the Antarctic Circle on 17 January 1773, in December 1773. They crossed it again in January 1774. In fact, Cook did come within about 75 miles (121 km) of the Antarctic coast. However, he was forced to go back because of ice in January 1773. The first conf...

    • Overall: 14,000,000 km² (5,400,000 sq mi), Ice-free: 280,000 km² (100,000 sq mi), Ice-covered: 13,720,000 km² (5,300,000 sq mi)
    • None
    • At Least 1 (about 1000 people living temporarily)
    • .aq
  3. Antarctic - Wikipedia › wiki › Antarctic

    The Antarctic Plate. The Antarctic ( / ænˈtɑːrtɪk / or / ænˈtɑːrktɪk /, US English also / æntˈɑːrtɪk / or / æntˈɑːrktɪk /; commonly / æˈnɑːrtɪk /) is a polar region around Earth 's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole. The Antarctic comprises the continent of Antarctica, the Kerguelen Plateau and ...

  4. History of Antarctica - Wikipedia › wiki › History_of_Antarctica
    • Early Exploration
    • Further Exploration
    • Political History
    • Recent History
    • Women in Antarctica
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    The search for Terra Australis Incognita

    Aristotle speculated, "Now since there must be a region bearing the same relation to the southern pole as the place we live in bears to our pole...". According to Māori oral history in New Zealand, Hui Te Rangiora (also known as Ūi Te Rangiora) and his crew explored Antarctic waters in the early seventh century on the vessel Te Ivi o Atea. Accounts name the area Te tai-uka-a-pia, which describes a 'frozen ocean' and 'arrowroot', which resembles fresh snow when scraped. It was not until Prince...

    South of the Antarctic Convergence

    The visit to South Georgia by the English merchant Anthony de la Roché in 1675 was the first ever discovery of land south of the Antarctic Convergence. Soon after the voyage cartographers started to depict ‘Roché Island’, honouring the discoverer. James Cookwas aware of la Roché's discovery when surveying and mapping the island in 1775. Edmond Halley's voyage in HMS Paramour for magnetic investigations in the South Atlantic met the pack ice in 52° S in January 1700, but that latitude (he reac...

    The Antarctic Circle

    The obsession of the undiscovered continent culminated in the brain of Alexander Dalrymple, the brilliant and erratic hydrographer who was nominated by the Royal Society to command the Transit of Venus expedition to Tahiti in 1769. The command of the expedition was given by the admiralty to Captain James Cook. Sailing in 1772 with the Resolution, a vessel of 462 tons under his own command and the Adventure of 336 tons under Captain Tobias Furneaux, Cook first searched in vain for Bouvet Islan...

    By air

    After Shackleton's last expedition, there was a hiatus in Antarctic exploration for about seven years. From 1929, aircraft and mechanized transportation were increasingly used, earning this period the sobriquet of the 'Mechanical Age'. Hubert Wilkins first visited Antarctica in 1921–1922 as an ornithologist attached to the Shackleton-Rowett Expedition. From 1927, Wilkins and pilot Carl Ben Eielsonbegan exploring the Arctic by aircraft. On 15 April 1928, only a year after Charles Lindbergh's f...

    Overland crossing

    The 1955–58 Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition successfully completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via the South Pole. Although supported by the British and other Commonwealth governments, most of the funding came from corporate and individual donations. It was headed by British explorer Dr Vivian Fuchs, with New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary leading the New Zealand Ross Sea Support team. After spending the winter of 1957 at Shackleton Base, Fuchs finally set out on the tran...

    British claims

    The United Kingdom reasserted sovereignty over the Falkland Islands in the far South Atlantic in 1833 and maintained a continuous presence there. In 1908, the British government extended its territorial claim by declaring sovereignty over "South Georgia, the South Orkneys, the South Shetlands, and the Sandwich Islands, and Graham's Land, situated in the South Atlantic Ocean and on the Antarctic continent to the south of the 50th parallel of south latitude, and lying between the 20th and the 8...

    Other European claims

    Meanwhile, alarmed by these unilateral declarations, the French government laid claim to a strip of the continent in 1924. The basis for their claim to Adélie Land lay on the discovery of the coastline in 1840 by the French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville, who named it after his wife, Adèle. The British eventually decided to recognize this claim and the border between Adélie Land and Australian Antarctic Territorywas fixed definitively in 1938. These developments also concerned Norwegian whal...

    South American involvement

    This encroachment of foreign powers was a matter of immense disquiet to the nearby South American countries, Argentina and Chile. Taking advantage of a European continent plunged into turmoil with the onset of the Second World War, Chile's president, Pedro Aguirre Cerda declared the establishment of a Chilean Antarctic Territoryin areas already claimed by Britain. Argentina had an even longer history of involvement in the Continent. Already in 1904 the Argentine government began a permanent o...

    In May 1965, the American physicist Carl R. Disch went missing during the course of his routine research near Byrd Station, Antarctica. His body was never found. A baby, named Emilio Marcos de Palma, was born near Hope Bayon 7 January 1978, becoming the first baby born on the continent. He also was born farther south than anyone in history. On 28 November 1979, an Air New Zealand DC-10 on a sightseeing trip crashed into Mount Erebus on Ross Island, killing all 257 people on board. In 1991 a convention among member nations of the Antarctic Treaty on how to regulate mining and drilling was proposed. Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke and French Prime Minister Michel Rocard led a response to this convention that resulted in the adoption of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, now known as the Madrid Protocol. All mineral extraction was banned for 50 years and the Antarctic was set aside as a "natural reserve, devoted to peace and science". Børge Ousland, a...

    Women were originally kept from exploring Antarctica until well into the 1950s. A few pioneering women visited the Antarctic land and waters prior to the 1950s and many women requested to go on early expeditions, but were turned away. Early pioneers such as Louise Séguin and Ingrid Christensen were some of the first women to see Antarctic waters. Christensen was the first woman to set foot on the mainland of Antarctica. The first women to have any fanfare about their Antarctic journeys were Caroline Mikkelsen who set foot on an island of Antarctica in 1935, and Jackie Ronne and Jennie Darlington who were the first women to over-winter in Antarctica in 1947. The first woman scientist to work in Antarctica was Maria Klenova in 1956. Silvia Morella de Palma was the first woman to give birth in Antarctica, delivering 3.4 kg (7 lb 8 oz) Emilio Palmaat the Argentine Esperanza base 7 January 1978. Women faced legal barriers and sexism that prevented most from visiting Antarctica and doing...

    The South Pole; an account of the Norwegian Antarctic expedition in the "Fram," 1910–12 — Volume 1 and Volume 2 at Project Gutenberg
    The Worst Journey in the World, Volumes 1 and 2 Antarctic 1910–1913 at Project Gutenberg
    South: the story of Shackleton's 1914–1917 expedition at Project Gutenberg
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  6. Wikipedia:WikiProject Antarctica - Wikipedia › wiki › Wikipedia:ANTARCTIC
    • Scope
    • Participants
    • Barnstars
    • Departments
    • Articles
    • Templates
    • Resources

    This project covers the creation and maintenance of articles related to the continent of Antarctica, its geology and geologic history, geography, climate, lifeforms, political and scientific history. It aims to expand Wikipedia's resources on Antarctica in a fair and accurate manner.

    Active participants

    To join WikiProject Antarctica, edit this section and add the Wikitext #{{subst:me}} with your areas of interest to the bottom of the following list of participants. Participants should also place participant identificationon their user page. 1. Dentren 2. Chris 3. Finavon 4. Fishdecoy - focus: McMurdo Soundgeographic area. Stickler for using footnotes and citing sources. 5. Daniel- Mountains, valleys and other specific georgraphical features. 6. Niel Malan 7. Polylerus- I'd love to help out...

    Former participants

    Thank you for your help! Please move your username back to the active list when you can participate again. 1. Anarcticpenguin– single edit account 2. BrucePLWest Antarctica, Marie Byrd Land, geology, climate history – Inactive since Nov 2011 3. robertjohnsonrj– Inactive since Dec 2006 4. Badbilltucker- Will help out where possible. – Inactive since Jan 2007 5. Ice Explorer (talk) Mostly working on Norwegian whalers and explorers. – Inactive since Jan 2010 6. Keesiewonder– Inactive since Nov 2...

    Participant identification

    WikiProject Antarctica participants should place one of the following lines of Wikitext on their user page to add it to Category:WikiProject Antarctica participants. For other Antarctica user templates see Category:Antarctica user templates.

    The "Antarctican Penguin Barnstar" and "The Antarctica Barnstar" may be awarded to any Wikipedian producing excellent work on Antarctic topics:


    1. Assessment Department

    Related WikiProjects

    1. Wikipedia:WikiProject Australia– external territories of Australia fall within this project

    New articles

    Please list any newly created articles below, and the date of their creation. Also, if they qualify, consider nominating them for inclusion in the Did you know section of the Wikipedia:Main page; 1. RRS Shackleton 1. 1.1. 24 May 2009 1. Blood Falls 1. 1.1. April 17, 2009 (just created after the publication in Science of a paper by Mikucki et al. (2009) dealing with a rare subglacial microbial community isolated for more than 1.5 Ma in a hypersaline brine imprisoned below the Taylor Glacier) 1...

    Project banner

    1. {{WikiProject Antarctica}}


    If the priority articles in the top of this page don't interest you, you can always expand one of these stubs. 1. {{Antarctica-stub}} ([clarification needed]) - stubs relating to Antarctica in general (e.g., expeditions, exploration, international law, wildlife) 2. {{Antarctica-geo-stub}} ([clarification needed]) - stubs on Antarctica's geographical features 2.1. {{Subantarctic-geo-stub}} (([clarification needed]) - stubs on the geography of the Sub-Antarctic islands


    1. {{User WikiProject Antarctica}}

    See also

    1. Geographic Names Information System (but see talk page entry) 1.1. {{gnis|ID|name|type=antarid}} 1. Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica

    External links

    1. Australian Antarctic Division. 2. The United States Antarctic Program (USAP). 3. Antarctic base camps and research facilities.


    1. Main tool page: 1. Reflinks- Edits bare references - adds title/dates etc. to bare references 2. Checklinks- Edit and repair external links 3. Dab solver- Quickly resolve ambiguous links. 4. Peer reviewer- Provides hints and suggestion to improving articles.

  7. Antarctica (1983 film) - Wikipedia › wiki › Antarctica_(1983_film)
    • Overview
    • Plot
    • Production
    • Release and reception
    • Original score album

    Antarctica is a 1983 Japanese drama film directed by Koreyoshi Kurahara and starring Ken Takakura. Its plot centers on the 1958 ill-fated Japanese scientific expedition to the South Pole, its dramatic rescue from the impossible weather conditions on the return journey, the relationship between the scientists and their loyal and hard-working Sakhalin huskies, particularly the lead dogs Taro and Jiro, and the fates of the 15 dogs left behind to fend for themselves. The film was selected as the Jap

    In February 1958, the Second Cross-Winter Expedition for the Japanese Antarctic Surveying Team rides on the icebreaker Sōya to take over from the 11-man First Cross-Winter Expedition. The First Cross-Winter Expedition retreats by helicopter, leaving 15 Sakhalin huskies chained up at the Showa Base for the next Expedition. Due to the extreme weather conditions, Sōya can not get near enough to the base and it is decided not to proceed with the handover, leaving the base unmanned. The team ...

    The film took over three years to make. It was filmed at the northern tip of Hokkaidō. The dogs in the film were sired by Kuma, a Sakhalin from Furen and were born in Wakkanai, Hokkaidō, some footage was shot in Antarctica in the summer of 1982 using dog teams from Scott Base. The film reportedly had a budget of $40 million.

    Antarctica was entered into the 34th Berlin International Film Festival. It was released in Japan in 1983, and in France in 1985. As of 2007, the film is available on DVD in Japan and Hong Kong. The breed of dog also became briefly popular. However, concerns were raised that the dogs who took part in the filming might have been subjected to extreme conditions to obtain the degree of realism involved. American Humane withheld its "No Animals Were Harmed" disclaimer, rating the film "Unacceptable"

    The original score to Antarctica was composed, arranged, produced and performed by Greek artist Vangelis. It was recorded at Vangelis' Nemo Studios, in London, UK, by sound engineer Raine Shine. The album was released worldwide as Antarctica.

    • Tomohiro Kaiyama, Masaru Kakutani, Koretsugo Kurahara, Juichi Tanaka
    • Koreyoshi Kurahara
  8. Colonization of Antarctica - Wikipedia › wiki › Colonization_of_Antarctica
    • Overview
    • Past colonization speculation
    • Domed cities
    • Future conditions
    • Births in Antarctica

    At present scientists and staff from 30 countries live on about 70 bases, with an approximate population of 4,000 in summer and 1,000 in winter. There have been at least eleven human births in Antarctica, starting with one in 1978 at an Argentine base, with seven more at that base and three at a Chilean base.

    An idea common in the 1950s was to have Antarctic cities enclosed under glass domes. Power and temperature regulation of the domes would come from atomic driven generators outside of these domes. This scenario would also include regular trans-Antarctic flights as well as mining towns which were dug into Antarctica's ice caps above the shafts down to mineral bearing mountains; however, there are problems with the idea of having an atomic driven generator giving the power and temperature regulatio

    Buckminster Fuller, the developer of the geodesic dome, had raised the possibility of Antarctic domed cities that would allow a controlled climate and buildings erected under the dome. His first specific published proposal for a domed city in 1965 discussed the Antarctic as a likely first location for such a project. The second base at Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station resembles a reduced version of this idea; it is large enough to cover only a few scientific buildings.

    Though the environment of Antarctica is too harsh for permanent human settlement to be worthwhile, conditions may become better in the future. It has been suggested that, as a result of long-term effects of global warming, the beginning of the 22nd century will see parts of West Antarctica experiencing similar climate conditions to those found today in Alaska and Northern Scandinavia. Even farming and crop growing could be possible in some of the most northerly areas of Antarctica.

    Emilio Marcos Palma is an Argentine citizen who is the first person known to be born on the continent of Antarctica. He was born in Fortín Sargento Cabral at the Esperanza Base near the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and weighed 3.4 kg. Since his birth, about ten others have been born on the continent.

  9. COVID-19 pandemic in Antarctica - Wikipedia › COVID-19_pandemic_in_Antarctica

    The COVID-19 pandemic in Antarctica is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to its remoteness and sparse population, Antarctica was the last continent to have confirmed cases of COVID-19 and was one of the last regions of the world ...

  10. Antarctica - Wikipedia › wiki › Antarctica

    Antarctica este regiunea polară din sudul Pământului care cuprinde continentul Antarctida și porțiunile sudice din oceanele limitrofe. Este situată în regiunea antarctică din emisfera sudică, aproape în întregime la sud de cercul polar antarctic și este înconjurată de Oceanul Antarctic.

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