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  1. La historia de Austria atañe a la historia de la actual Austria y de sus estados predecesores, desde principios de la Edad de Piedra hasta el Estado actual, y como la definición geopolítica del país ha sufrido cambios profundos durante los períodos modernos y contemporáneos, su historia también concierne a varios países vecinos: Alemania, Hungría, Suiza, Italia, República Checa, etc.

  2. Dopo lo scioglimento del Sacro Romano Impero nel 1806, venne fondato l' Impero austriaco, che nel 1867 si trasformò nella doppia monarchia dell' Austria-Ungheria. L'impero venne diviso in diversi Stati indipendenti dopo la sconfitta delle potenze centrali nella prima guerra mondiale, portando l' Austria alla forma odierna.

    • Biography
    • Assassination
    • Legacy
    • Portrayal of Elisabeth in The Arts
    • Honours
    • References
    • External Links

    Duchess in Bavaria

    Born Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie on 24 December 1837 in Munich, Bavaria, she was the third child and second daughter of Duke Maximilian Joseph in Bavaria and Princess Ludovika of Bavaria, the half-sister of King Ludwig I of Bavaria. Maximilian was considered to be rather peculiar; he had a childish love of circuses and traveled the Bavarian countryside to escape his duties. The family's homes were the Herzog-Max-Palais in Munich during winter and Possenhofen Castlein the summer months, far from...

    Empress of Austria

    After enjoying an informal and unstructured childhood, Elisabeth, who was shy and introverted by nature, and more so among the stifling formality of Habsburg court life, had difficulty adapting to the Hofburg and its rigid protocols and strict etiquette. Within a few weeks, Elisabeth started to display health problems: she had fits of coughing and became anxious and frightened whenever she had to descend a narrow steep staircase. She was surprised to find she was pregnant and gave birth to he...

    Physical regimen

    At 173 cm (5 feet 8 inches), Elisabeth was unusually tall. Even after four pregnancies she maintained her weight at approximately 50 kg (110 pounds) for the rest of her life. She achieved this through fasting and exercise, such as gymnastics and riding. In deep mourning after her daughter Sophie's death, Elisabeth refused to eat for days; a behavior that would reappear in later periods of melancholy and depression. Whereas she previously had supper with the family, she now began to avoid this...

    In 1898, despite warnings of possible assassination attempts, the 60-year-old Elisabeth traveled incognito to Geneva, Switzerland. However, someone from the Hôtel Beau-Rivagerevealed that the Empress of Austria was their guest. At 1:35 p.m. on Saturday 10 September 1898, Elisabeth and Countess Irma Sztáray de Sztára et Nagymihály, her lady-in-waiti...

    Upon her death, Franz Joseph founded the Order of Elizabethin memory of her. In the Volksgarten of Vienna, there is an elaborate memorial monument featuring a seated statue of the Empress by Hans Bitterlich, dedicated on 4 June 1907. On the promenade in Territet Switzerland, there is a monument to the Empress created by Antonio Chiattone[de]in 1902...

    Stage

    In 1932 the comic operetta Sissi premiered in Vienna. Composed by Fritz Kreisler, the libretto was written by Ernst and Hubert Marischka, with orchestrations by Robert Russell Bennett.Although the pet name of the empress was always spelled "Sisi," never "Sissi," this incorrect version of her name persisted in the works about her that followed. In 1943 Jean Cocteau wrote a play about an imagined meeting between Elisabeth and her assassin, L'Aigle à deux têtes(The Eagle with Two Heads). It was...

    Ballet

    In his 1978 ballet, Mayerling Kenneth MacMillan portrayed Elisabeth in a pas de deuxwith her son Prince Rudolf, the principal character in the ballet. In 1993 French ballerina Sylvie Guillem appeared in a piece entitled, Sissi, l'impératice anarchiste (Sissi, Anarchist Empress), choreographed by Maurice Béjart to Strauss's Emperor Waltz.

    Film

    The 1921 film Kaiserin Elisabeth von Österreich was one of the first films to focus entirely on Elisabeth. It was co-written by Elisabeth's niece, Marie Larisch (who played her younger self at the age of 62), and starred Carla Nelsen as the title character. The film later achieved notoriety when a group of con-artistsstarted selling stills from the murder scene as actual photographs of the crime. Adolf Trotz directed the 1931 German film Elisabeth of Austria. In 1936, Columbia Pictures releas...

    Russian Empire: Grand Cross of the Imperial Order of Saint Catherine, October 1853
    Spain: Dame of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa, 16 June 1854
    Mexican Empire: Grand Cross of the Imperial Order of Saint Charles, 10 April 1865
    United Kingdom: Dame Grand Cross of the Venerable Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, 23 May 1873

    Bibliography

    1. Nicole Avril: L'impératrice, Paris, 1993 2. Jennifer Bowers Bahney: "Stealing Sisi's Star: How a master thief nearly got away with Austria's most famous jewel," (McFarland & Co., 2015) (ISBN 078649722X) 3. Philippe Collas: Louis II de Bavière et Elisabeth d'Autriche, âmes sœurs, Éditions du Rocher, Paris/Monaco 2001 (ISBN 978 2 268 03884 1) 4. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Elizabeth of Austria" . Encyclopædia Britannica(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 5. Konstantin Christomanos: Diar...

  3. Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Dual Monarchy, or Austria, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918. [8] [9] It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War and was dissolved shortly after its defeat in the ...

    • 1867-1918
    • Florin, (1867–1892), Krone, (1892–1918)
  4. ro.wikipedia.org › wiki › SalzburgSalzburg - Wikipedia

    • Istorie
    • Monumente
    • Mozart în Salzburg
    • Personalități Locale
    • Sport
    • Legături Externe

    Orașul Salzburg a fost populat încă de timpuriu, din perioada neolitică, în mare parte datorită salinelor din zonă. Săpăturile arheologice au scos la iveală relicve preistorice: cu aproximativ 1000 î.C. se găsea aici o colonie destul de numeroasă de iliri, atrasă de exploatarea salinelor de pe Dürnberg, lângă Hallein. După 400 de ani locul este ocu...

    La 27 ianuarie 1756 se naște Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, într-o casă de pe Getreidegasse, la numărul 9. Această casă era cunoscută și sub numele de casa maestrului de dans (Tanzmeisterhaus), deoarece aici luase ființă, în anul 1711, o școală de dans pentru nobili, școală care, pe lângă orele de dans, mai oferea și cursuri de bune-maniere și comportare...

    Muzicieni

    1. Mönch von Salzburg(secolul XIV) 2. Paul Hofhaimer(1459-1537) 3. Johann Stadlmayr(ca. 1575-1648) 4. Bartholomäus Riedl(† 1688) 5. Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber(1644-1704) 6. Georg Muffat(1653-1704) 7. Leopold Mozart(1719-1787) 8. Michael Haydn(1737-1806) 9. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart(1756-1791) 10. Joseph Wölfl(1773-1812) 11. Sigismund von Neukomm(1778-1858) 12. Joseph Mohr(1792-1848) 13. Joseph Messner(1893-1969) 14. Cesar Bresgen(1913-1988) 15. Herbert von Karajan(1908-1989) 16. Franz Mazura(19...

    Scriitori

    1. Florian Reichssiegel(1735-1793) 2. Joseph Mohr(1792-1848) 3. Irma von Troll-Borostyáni(1847-1912) 4. Stefan Zweig(1881-1942) 5. Georg Trakl(1887-1914) 6. Grete Weiskopf(1905-1966) 7. Gerhard Amanshauser(1928-2006) 8. Thomas Bernhard(1931-1989) 9. Walter Kappacher(1938) 10. Peter Handke(1942) 11. Bodo Hell(1943) 12. Ruth Aspöck(1947) 13. Erich Wolfgang Skwara(1948) 14. Walter Müller(1950) 15. Karl-Markus Gauß(1954) 16. Hansjörg Zauner(1959) 17. Meta Merz(1965-1989) 18. Peter Truschner(1967)

    Oameni de știință

    1. Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (Paracelsus) (1493-1541) 2. Joseph Russegger(1802-1863) 3. Christian Doppler(1803-1853) 4. Virgil von Helmreichen zu Brunnfeld(1805-1852) 5. Eduard Paul Tratz(1888-1977) 6. Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff(1912-1994) 7. Georg Zundel(1931-2007) 8. Oswald Huber(1942) 9. Heinz Wässle(1943)

    Salzburg a fost oraș candidat pentru Jocurile Olimpice de iarnă din 2010, dar a pierdut în fața Vancouverului, Canada. În 2005 a candidat pentru Jocurile Olimpice de iarnă din 2014, dar a fost eliminat după prima rundă de vot ce a avut loc în Guatemala City pe 4 iulie 2007; Soci, Rusia a fost ales să găzduiască Jocurile Olimpice de iarnă din 2014. ...

    • 2011
    • ii, iv, vi
    • Stemă
    • 65,68 km²
  5. ro.wikipedia.org › wiki › RusiaRusia - Wikipedia

    Etimologia. Numele Rusia este derivat din Rus' ⁠(d), numele unui stat medieval astăzi tradus în română ca Rutenia și populat în mare parte de către slavii răsăriteni.

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