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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Brands_HatchBrands Hatch - Wikipedia

    13 hours ago · The British Rallycross Circuit at Brands Hatch was designed and constructed by four-times British Rallycross Champion Trevor Hopkins. It is approximately 0.9 mi (1.4 km) long and was completed around 1981. Unlike earlier rallycross courses at Brands Hatch, cars start on the startline then veer right and downhill on the loose at Paddock Hill Bend.

    • Origins
    • Acquisition of Colonies
    • End of The German Colonial Empire
    • Administration and Colonial Policies
    • Legacy
    • Sources and References
    • Bibliography

    German unification

    Until their 1871 unification, the German states had not concentrated on the development of a navy, and this essentially had precluded German participation in earlier imperialist scrambles for remote colonial territory – the so-called "place in the sun". Without a blue-water navy, a would-be colonial power could not reliably defend, supply or trade with overseas dependencies. Germany seemed destined to play catch-up. The German states prior to 1870 had retained separate political structures an...

    Scramble for colonies

    Germans public opinion in the late-19th century viewed colonial acquisitions as a true indication of having achieved full nationhood. Public opinion eventually arrived at an understanding that prestigious African and Pacific colonies went hand-in-hand with dreams of a High Seas Fleet. Both aspirations would become reality, nurtured by a press replete with Kolonialfreunde [supporters of colonial acquisitions] and by a myriad of geographical associations and colonial societies. Bismarck and man...

    The German Colonial empire got its start around 1884, and in those years they invaded several territories in Africa: German East Africa (including present-day Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of Tanzania); German South-West Africa (present-day Namibia), German Cameroon (including parts of present-day Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Re...

    Conquest in World War I

    In the years before the outbreak of the World War, British colonial officers viewed the Germans as deficient in "colonial aptitude", but "whose colonial administration was nevertheless superior to those of the other European states". Anglo-German colonial issues in the decade before 1914 were minor and both empires, the British and German, took conciliatory attitudes. Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey, considered still a moderate in 1911, was willing to "study the map of Africa in a pro-Germa...

    Confiscation

    Germany's overseas empire was dismantled following defeat in World War I. With the concluding Treaty of Versailles, Article 22, German colonies were transformed into League of Nations mandatesand divided between Belgium, the United Kingdom, and certain British Dominions, France and Japan with the determination not to see any of them returned to Germany — a guarantee secured by Article 119. In Africa, the United Kingdom and France divided German Kamerun (Cameroons) and Togoland. Belgium gained...

    Colonialism after 1918

    In Germany after the First World War, the general public opinion was that the seizure of the colonies had been unlawful and that Germany had a right to its colonies. Nearly all the parties elected to the Weimar National Assembly on 19 January 1919, voted in favour of a resolution which demanded the return of the colonies on 1 March 1919, i.e. while the Paris Peace Conference was still in progress. Only seven delegates from the USPD voted against it. The charge that Germany had failed to "civi...

    Colonial governments

    Bismarck's successor in 1890, Leo von Caprivi, was willing to maintain the colonial burden of what already existed, but opposed new ventures. Others who followed, especially Bernhard von Bülow, as foreign minister and chancellor, sanctioned the acquisition of the Pacific Ocean colonies and provided substantial treasury assistance to existing protectorates to employ administrators, commercial agents, surveyors, local "peacekeepers" and tax collectors. Kaiser Wilhelm II understood and lamented...

    German colonial population

    The Pennsylvania Dutch who emigrated to America in the 17th and 18th centuries were religious refugees from the Thirty Years War which devastated the German states 1616-1648 rather than colonial settlers. Germantown, Pennsylvania, was founded in 1684 and 65,000 Germans landed in Philadelphia alone between 1727 and 1775, and more at other American ports. More than 950,000 Germans immigrated to the US in the 1850s and 1,453,000 in the 1880s, but these were personal migrants, unrelated to the Ge...

    Medicine and science

    In her African and South Seas colonies, Germany established diverse biological and agricultural stations. Staff specialists and the occasional visiting university group conducted soil analyses, developed plant hybrids, experimented with fertilizers, studied vegetable pests and ran courses in agronomy for settlers and natives and performed a host of other tasks.Successful German plantation operators realized the benefits of systematic scientific inquiry and instituted and maintained their own...

    Continuity thesis

    In recent years scholars have debated the "continuity thesis" that links German colonialist brutalities to the treatment of Jews, Poles and Russians during World War II. Some historians argue that Germany's role in southwestern Africa gave rise to an emphasis on racial superiority at home, which in turn was used by the Nazis. They argue that the limited successes of German colonialism overseas led to a decision to shift the main focus of German expansionism into Central and Eastern Europe, wi...

    Impact

    Unlike other colonial empires such as the British, French or Spanish, Germany left very few traces of its own language, institutions or customs in its former colonies. As of today, no country outside Europe uses German as an official language, although in Namibia, German is a recognized national language and there are numerous German placenames and architectural structures in the country. A small German ethnic minorityalso resides in the country.

    Achleitner, Arthur; Johannes Biernatzki (1902). Deutschland und seine Kolonieen; Wanderungen durch das Reich und seine überseeischen Besitzungen, unter Mitwirkung von Arthur Achleitner, Johannes Bi...
    Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German)
    Austen, Ralph A.; Derrick, Jonathan (1999). Middlemen of the Cameroons Rivers: The Duala and their Hinterland, c. 1600–c.1960. Cambridge University Press.
    Berghahn, Volker Rolf. "German Colonialism and Imperialism from Bismarck to Hitler" German Studies Review 40#1 (2017) pp. 147–162 Online
    Boahen, A. Adu, ed. (1985). Africa Under Colonial Domination, 1880–1935. Berkeley: U of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06702-8(1990 Abridged edition).
    Boianovsky, Mauro. "Friedrich List and the economic fate of tropical countries." History of Political Economy 45.4 (2013): 647–691. online
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