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By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. By land area alone, Canada ranks fourth. It has the longest border with water (coastline) of any country in the world. It is next to the Pacific, Arctic, and Atlantic Oceans. It is the only country in the world to be next to three oceans at once. It has six time zones. Canada is made up of ten provinces and three territories. The provinces are between the 45th and 60th parallels of latitude, and the territories are to the north of the 60th parallel of latitude. Most large cities in Canada are in the southern part of the country, including Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal. There are very few people living in the northern part of Canada. Canada extends from the west coast, across the prairies and central Canada, to the Atlantic provinces. In the north there are three territories, between Alaska and Greenland: the Yukon in the west, then the Northwest Territories, then Nunavut. Four o...
Indigenous peoples lived in what is now Canada for thousands of years before the first Europeans arrived. The indigenous groups are called the First Nations, the Inuit, and the Métis. The Métis are people that come from both First Nations and European families.Together, these three groups are called "Indigenous," "Aboriginal," or "First Peoples." They used to be called "Indians" by the Europeans, but this is now considered rude. Many people think that the first people to live in Canada came f...
The Vikings were the first Europeans known to land in what is now called Canada, in what is now Newfoundland, led by the Viking explorer Leif Erikson. They did not stay long, however. In the early 16th century, Europeans started exploring Canada's eastern coast, beginning with John Cabot from England in 1497, and later Jacques Cartier in 1534 from France. Alexander Mackenzie later reached the Pacific coast over land, where captains James Cook and George Vancouver went by sea. The Europeans al...
Confederation and expansion
On July 1, 1867, Canada was united under a federal government. It included the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Sir John A. Macdonald was the first prime minister. Manitoba, the Yukon territory, and the Northwest Territories became part of Canada in 1870. British Columbia joined in 1871, and Prince Edward Islandin 1873. There were two Red River Rebellions, in 1869-70 and 1885, both led by Louis Riel. He fought for more rights for the Métis people, a mix between Fr...
Canada has a government called a constitutional monarchy. It has a monarch (meaning a king or queen is the head of that country), and is a democracy (meaning the people of that country rule it). The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who is officially the Queen of Canada. She appoints a Governor Generalto represent her in the country, however, the choice of Governor General is made by the prime minister. The Queen's powers are mostly exercised by the Governor General, currently Mary Simon. The Governor General, like the Canadian sovereign (King/Queen of Canada), is not political and remains above politics, and because of that they do not usually use their powers without the advice of the Prime Minister or other ministers. The head of government is the Prime Minister. The current prime minister is Justin Trudeau, who replaced Stephen Harper in October 2015. Each province and territory has a premierto lead its government. The day-to-day operations of the government are run by the ca...
Many people from other parts of the world think of Canada as a very cold and snowy place. While it is true that much of Canada is very far north, most Canadians live in the southern parts, where the weather is much milder. Nearly two thirds of Canadians live less than 100 kilometres (62 mi) from the U.S. border. In some cities the temperature can get very cold in the winter, especially in the inland.Warm air systems moving in from the Pacific Ocean bring more rain than snow to the Pacific coast, while colder temperatures further inland do result in snow. Most of Canada can get quite hot in the summer, often over 30 degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit). Canadians are known to play winter sports such as ice hockey and skiing and snowboarding, and also enjoy many summer sports and games.
Canada has lots of natural resources. Its large amounts of fish have been used for centuries for food and money. Hydroelectric power (electricity by water) is abundant because of Canada's many rivers. Forests of the west are used for wood. Besides these renewable resources, Canada has metal ores and oil deposits. Also, Canada is the leading exporter of zinc, uranium, gold, nickel, aluminum, steel and lead.
Around 35 million people live in Canada. This is almost the same number as in the U.S. state of California. About 80% of the Canadian population live in the southern parts of Canada since the climates are milder than the northern parts of Canada. A large number of immigrants from almost every part of the world come to live in Canada. One example is the former Governor General of Canada, Michaëlle Jean, who came to Canada as a young child with her family from Haitiin 1968. Today, up to 1/5th of the population is an immigrant to Canada.
The Canadian government provides universal health care. The provinces are responsible for health insurance. Five provinces prohibit all extra-billing, while Alberta, British Columbia and Newfoundland allow it in a small number of circumstances, and Prince Edward Island and New Brunswickdo not restrict it at all. In 2020 the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation reported a deterioration in the number of acute care beds available in Ontario hospitals per every 1,000 people in that province. Ontario is Canada's largest province, and is home to Canada's largest city, Toronto. The number of hospital beds available in Ontario is 1.4 per every 1,000 people. This is half the number hospitals beds available in the United States, and the same number available in Mexico.
Jan 15, 2022 · Canada holds the third largest oil reserves after Saudi Arabia and Venezuela, and is the only non-OPEC member in the top five. Canada and the United States operate an integrated electricity grid under jointly developed reliability standards. Uranium mined in Canada helps fuel U.S. nuclear power plants.
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Feb 25, 2021 · Canada is bordered by non-contiguous US state of Alaska in the northwest and by 12 other US states in the south. The border of Canada with the US is the longest bi-national land border in the world. Canada is also bounded by the Arctic Ocean to the north, by the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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Jan 11, 2022 · Canada, the second largest country in the world in area, occupying roughly the northern two-fifths of the continent of North America. Despite Canada’s great size, it is one of the world’s most sparsely populated countries; however, it has crafted what many consider to be a model multicultural society