Definition of second language
- second language. n. 1. ( Linguistics ) a language other than the mother tongue that a person or community uses for public communication, esp in trade, higher education, and administration. 2. (Linguistics) a non-native language officially recognized and adopted in a multilingual country as a means of public communication.
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a language learned by a person after his or her native language, especially as a resident of an area where it is in general use. a language widely used, especially in educational and governmental functions in a region where all or most of its speakers are nonnative, as English in India or Nigeria.
Second language definition is - a language that is learned in addition to the language a person first learned as a young child.
- Examples and Observations
- The Number and Variety of L2 Users
- Second Language Acquisition
- Second Language Writing
- Second Language Reading
"Some terms fall into more than one category. For example, 'foreign language' can be subjectively 'a language which is not my L1,' or objectively 'a language which has no legal status within the national boundaries.' There is simply a semantic confusion between the first two sets of terms and the third in the following instance in which a certain French Canadian said It is indeed perfectly true to say that for most French Canadians French is the 'first language,' 'L1,' or 'mother tongue.' For them, English is a 'second language' or 'L2.' But for English native speakers in CanadaFrench is a 'second language' or 'L2.' In this example, the confusion has been created by equating 'first' with 'national,' 'historically first' or 'important,' and 'second' with 'less important' or 'inferior,' and thus mixing up the third set of objective terms which attributes a position, value or status to a language with the first two sets of subjective terms which relate individuals and their use of lang...
"Using a second languageis a commonplace activity. There are few places in the world where only one language is used. In London people speak over 300 languages and 32% of the children live in homes where English is not the main language (Baker & Eversley, 2000). In Australia 15.5% of the population speak a language other than English at home, amounting to 200 languages (Australian Government Census, 1996). In the Congo people speak 212 African languages, with French as the official language. In Pakistan they speak 66 languages, chiefly Punjabi, Sindhi, Siraiki, Pashtu and Urdu. . . . "In a sense L2 users have no more in common than L1 users; the whole diversity of mankind is there. Some of them use the second language as skillfully as a monolingual native speaker, like [Vladimir] Nabokov writing whole novels in a second language; some of them can barely ask for a coffee in a restaurant. The concept of the L2 user is similar to Haugen's minimal definition of bilingualism as 'the poin...
"Whereas L1 development happens relatively fast, the rate of L2 acquisition is typically protracted, and contrary to the uniformity of L1 across children, one finds a broad range of variation in L2, across individuals and within learners over time. Invariant developmental sequences, on the other hand, have been discovered for L2 as well, but they are not the same as in L1. Most importantly, perhaps, it is obviously not the case that all L2 learners are successful--on the contrary, L2 acquisition typically leads to incomplete grammatical knowledge, even after many years of exposure to the target language. Whether it is in principle possible to acquire native competence in the L2 is a matter of much controversy, but if it should be possible, the 'perfect' learners undoubtedly represent an extremely small fraction of those who begin L2 acquisition . . .." (Jürgen M. Meisel, "Age of Onset in Successive Acquisition of Bilingualism: Effects on Grammatical Development." Language Acquisitio...
"[In the 1990s] second language writing evolved into an interdisciplinary field of inquiry situated in both composition studiesand second language studies simultaneously. . . . "[J]ust as theories of writing derived only from first language writers 'can at best be extremely tentative and at worst invalid' (Silva, Leki, & Carson, 1997, p. 402), theories of second language writing derived only from one language or one context are also limited. For second language writing instruction to be most effective in various disciplinary and institutional contexts, it needs to reflect the findings of studies conducted in a wide variety of instructional contexts as well as disciplinary perspectives." (Paul Kei Matsuda, "Second Language Writing in the Twentieth Century: A Situated Historical Perspective." Exploring the Dynamics of Second Language Writing, ed. by Barbara Kroll. Cambridge University Press, 2003)
"One general implication, in considering the wide range of contexts for L2 reading, is that there is no single 'one size fits all' set of recommendations for reading instruction or curriculum development. L2 reading instruction should be sensitive to the students' needs and goals and to the larger institutional context. "When L2 students read specific texts in classroom contexts, particularly in academically oriented settings, they will engage in varying types of reading that reflect differing tasks, texts, and instructional objectives. Sometimes students do not fully understand the goals for a given reading text or reading task, and perform poorly. The problem may not be an inability to comprehend but a lack of awareness of the real goal for that reading task (Newman, Griffin, & Cole, 1989; Perfetti, Marron, & Foltz, 1996). Students need to become aware of the goals that they might adopt while reading." (William Grabe, Reading in a Second Language: Moving from Theory to Practice. C...
A person's second language, or L2, is a language that is not the native language (first language or L1) of the speaker, but is learned later (usually as a foreign language, but it can be another language used in the speaker's home country).
- beyond the level of input
- slower than acquisition of L1
- not directly influential
- systematic stages of development
1. a language learned by a person after his or her native language, esp. as a resident of an area where it is in general use. 2. a language widely used, esp. in trade, government, and education, in a region where all or most of its speakers are nonnative.
/ ˌsek. ə nd ˈlæŋ.ɡwɪdʒ / uk / ˌsek. ə nd ˈlæŋ.ɡwɪdʒ / a language that a person can speak that is not the first language they learned naturally as a child: German is my second language.
May 07, 2010 · Second Language Acquisition Language is the method of expressing ideas and emotions in the form of signs and symbols. These signs and symbols are used to encode and decode the information. There are many languages spoken in the world.
/ ˌsek. ə nd ˈlæŋ.ɡwɪdʒ / us / ˌsek. ə nd ˈlæŋ.ɡwɪdʒ / a language that a person can speak that is not the first language they learned naturally as a child: German is my second language.