Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (German: Franz Josef Karl, Hungarian: Ferenc József Károly; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia, and monarch of other states of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 until his death.
Princess Sophie of Bavaria. Franz Joseph I (in German Franz Josef, in Hungarian Ferenc József, in English Francis Joseph) ( August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916. His 68-year reign is the third-longest in the recorded history of Europe (after those of Louis XIV of France and Johannes II, Prince of Liechtenstein ).
Archduke Joseph Franz Leopold of Austria (9 April 1799 – 30 June 1807) was the second son and seventh child of Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor and his second wife, Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily, daughter of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and his wife Maria Carolina of Austria. He was their fourth child to die.
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Francis I (Francis Stephen; French: François Étienne; German: Franz Stefan; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was the Duke of Lorraine and Bar (1729–1737), and later Grand Duke of Tuscany (1737–1765), who married Maria Theresa of Austria and became Holy Roman Emperor (1745–1765) and Archduke of Austria (1740–1765).
- Early Life
- Heir Presumptive
- Proclamations of November 1918
- Attempts to Reclaim Throne of Hungary
- Exile in Madeira, Portugal, and Death
Charles was born on 17 August 1887, in the Castle of Persenbeug, in Lower Austria. His parents were Archduke Otto Franz of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony. At the time, his great-uncle Franz Joseph reigned as Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. Upon the death of Crown Prince Rudolph in 1889, the Emperor's brother, Archduke Karl Ludwig, was next in line to the Austro-Hungarian throne. However, his death in 1896 from typhoid made his eldest son, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the new heir presumptive. Archduke Charles was reared a devout Catholic. He spent his early years wherever his father's regiment happened to be stationed; later on, he lived in Vienna and Reichenau an der Rax. He was privately educated, but, contrary to the custom ruling in the imperial family, he attended a public gymnasium for the sake of demonstrations in scientific subjects. On the conclusion of his studies at the gymnasium, he entered the army, spending the years from 1906 to 1908 as an officer c...
In 1911, Charles married Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma. They had met as children but did not see one another for almost ten years, as each pursued their education. In 1909, his Dragoon regiment was stationed at Brandýs nad Labem in Bohemia, from where he visited his aunt at Franzensbad.:5 It was during one of these visits that Charles and Zita became reacquainted.:5 Due to Franz Ferdinand's morganatic marriage in 1900, his children were excluded from the succession. As a result, the Emperor pressured Charles to marry. Zita not only shared Charles' devout Catholicism, but also an impeccable royal lineage.:16Zita later recalled: Archduke Charles traveled to Villa Pianore, the Italian winter residence of Zita's parents, and asked for her hand; on 13 June 1911, their engagement was announced at the Austrian court.:8 Charles and Zita were married at the Bourbon-Parma castle of Schwarzau in Austria on 21 October 1911. Charles's great-uncle, the 81-year-old Emperor Franz Joseph, attended...
Charles became heir presumptive after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914, the event which precipitated World War I. Only at this time did the old Emperor take steps to initiate the heir-presumptive to his crown in affairs of state. But the outbreak of World War I interfered with this political education. Charles spent his time during the first phase of the war at headquarters at Teschen, but exercised no military influence. Charles then became a Feldmarschall (Field Marshal) in the Austro-Hungarian Army. In the spring of 1916, in connection with the offensive against Italy, he was entrusted with the command of the XX. Corps, whose affections the heir-presumptive to the throne won by his affability and friendliness. The offensive, after a successful start, soon came to a standstill. Shortly afterwards, Charles went to the eastern front as commander of an army operating against the Russians and Romanians.
Charles succeeded to the thrones in November 1916 after the death of his grand-uncle, Emperor Franz Joseph. On 2 December 1916, he assumed the title of Supreme Commander of the whole army, succeeding Archduke Friedrich. His coronation as King of Hungary occurred on 30 December. In 1917, Charles secretly entered into peace negotiations with France. He employed his brother-in-law, Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma, an officer in the Belgian Army, as intermediary. However, the Allies insisted on Austrian recognition of Italian claims to territory and Charles refused, so no progress was made. Foreign minister Graf Czernin was only interested in negotiating a general peace which would include Germany, Charles himself went much further in suggesting his willingness to make a separate peace. When news of the overture leaked in April 1918, Charles denied involvement until French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceaupublished letters signed by him. This led to Czernin's resignation, forcing Austria...
On the day of the Armistice of 11 November 1918, Charles issued a carefully worded proclamation in which he recognized the Austrian people's right to determine the form of the state and "relinquish[ed] every participation in the administration of the State." He also released his officials from their oath of loyalty to him. On the same day, the Imperial Family left Schönbrunn Palace and moved to Castle Eckartsau, east of Vienna. On 13 November, following a visit with Hungarian magnates, Charles issued a similar proclamation—the Eckartsau Proclamation—for Hungary. Although it has widely been cited as an "abdication", the word itself was never used in either proclamation. Indeed, he deliberately avoided using the word abdication in the hope that the people of either Austria or Hungary would vote to recall him. Privately, Charles left no doubt that he believed himself to be the rightful emperor. He wrote to Friedrich Gustav Piffl, the Archbishop of Vienna: Instead, on 12 November, the d...
Encouraged by Hungarian royalists ("legitimists"), Charles sought twice in 1921 to reclaim the throne of Hungary, but failed largely because Hungary's regent, Admiral Miklós Horthy (the last commander of the Imperial and Royal Navy), refused to support Charles' restoration. Horthy's action was declared "treasonous" by royalists. Critics suggest that Horthy's actions were more firmly grounded in political reality than those of Charles and his supporters. Indeed, neighbouring countries had threatened to invade Hungary if Charles tried to regain the throne. Later in 1921, the Hungarian parliament formally nullified the Pragmatic Sanction, an act that effectively dethroned the Habsburgs.
After the second failed attempt at restoration in Hungary, Charles and his pregnant wife Zita were arrested and quarantined at Tihany Abbey. On 1 November 1921 they were taken to the Hungarian Danube harbour city of Baja, were taken on board the monitor HMS Glowworm, and there removed to the Black Sea where they were transferred to the light cruiser HMS Cardiff. On 19 November 1921 they arrived at their final exile, the Portuguese island of Madeira. Determined to prevent a third restoration attempt, the Council of Allied Powers had agreed on Madeira because it was isolated in the Atlantic Oceanand easily guarded. The couple and their children, who joined them on 2 February 1922, lived first at Funchal at the Villa Vittoria, next to Reid's Hotel, and later moved to Quinta do Monte. Compared to the imperial glory in Vienna and even at Eckartsau, conditions there were certainly impoverished. Charles did not leave Madeira. On 9 March 1922 he had caught a cold in town, which developed in...
Historians have been mixed in their evaluations of Charles and his reign. In the interwar years he was celebrated in Austria as a military hero. When Nazi Germany took over it made his memory into that of a traitor. For decades after 1945, both popular interest and academic interest practically disappeared. Attention has slowly returned. Helmut Rumpler, the head of the Habsburg commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, described Charles as "a dilettante, far too weak for the challenges facing him, out of his depth, and not really a politician." Others have seen Charles as a brave and honourable figure who tried to stop the war in which his Empire was doing so poorly. The English Neo-Jacobite writer, Herbert Vivian, wrote: Anatole France, the French novelist, stated: Paul von Hindenburg, the German commander in chief, commented in his memoirs:
Catholic Church leaders have praised Charles for putting his Christian faith first in making political decisions, and for his role as a peacemaker during the war, especially after 1917. They have considered that his brief rule expressed Catholic social teaching, and that he created a social legal framework that in part still survives. The cause or campaign for his canonization began in 1949. In 1954, the cause was opened and Charles was declared "servant of God", the first step in the process. At the beginning of the cause for canonization in 1972 his tomb was opened and his body was discovered to be incorrupt. On 14 April 2003, the Vatican's Congregation for the Causes of Saints, in the presence of Pope John Paul II, promulgated Charles of Austria's "heroic virtues". Charles thereby acquired the title "venerable". On 21 December 2003, the Congregation certified, on the basis of three expert medical opinions, that a miracle in 1960 occurred through..."Now, we must help each other to get to Heaven."Addressing Empress Zita on 22 October 1911, the day after their wedding."I am an officer with all my body and soul, but I do not see how anyone who sees his dearest relations leaving for the front can love war." Addressing Empress Zita after the outbreak of World War I."I have done my duty, as I came here to do. As crowned King, I not only have a right, I also have a duty. I must uphold the right, the dignity and honor of the Crown.... For me, this is not somethi..."I must suffer like this so my people will come together again."Spoken in Madeira, during his last illness.
- The Sarcophagi
- People Buried Here
- Selected Other Habsburgs
- Future Entombments
- See Also
- External Links
Anna of Tyrol1, wife of Emperor Matthias2 conceived the idea of a Capuchin cloister and burial crypt for herself and her husband, to be built in the neighborhood of the Hofburg castle in Vienna. She provided funds for it in the will she made on 10 November 1617, and soon made the funds available by dying just a year later. Her spouse followed a year after that. The foundation stone was laid on 8 September 1622 in the presence of Emperor Ferdinand IIx578 and after slow progress caused by the distractions of the Thirty Years' War the church was dedicated on 25 July 1632. At Easter the following year, the simple sarcophagi containing the remains of Emperor Matthias2 and Empress Anna1were transferred with great ceremony to what is now called the Founders Vault. Emperor Leopold I37 enlarged the crypt in 1657 in the area under the nave of the church and his son Emperor Joseph I35 extended it further westward and built another mausoleum chamber and a chapel to the east in 1710, but awkward...
The free-standing tombs are usually variations of either a flat-topped storage chest, or a tub with sloping sides and a convex lid of tapered decks. Ornamentation ranges from simple to elaborate. Until far in the 18th century, the most common material for a sarcophagus here was a bronze-like alloy of tin, coated with shellac. The splendid tombs of the baroque and rococo eras are made of true bronze, a nobler and therefore more expensive material. Reforming Emperor Joseph II42 decreed simplified burial customs for the people, and introduced the use of lighter and cheaper copper into the Imperial Crypt, where it was then used into the 19th century. In the later 19th century a mixture of cast brass and bronze as well as silver-bronzed copper was adopted. Other metals were used only rarely, except for silver and goldplating on decorations. Various techniques of metalworking were used: full casting for the sarcophagus; hollow casting for decorative sculpture; carving, engraving, and hamm...
The bodies of 145 people (mainly members of the ruling line of the House of Habsburg and the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine), plus urns containing the hearts or cremated remains of four others, are deposited in one of the ten interconnected Vaults of the Imperial Crypt.They include 12 Emperors and 18 Empresses. The most recent entombment, that of Otto von Habsburg,150 and his wife Regina von Habsburg, was on 16 July 2011. From other families there are 32 spouses, plus four others,15 41 47 117who have found their resting place here. The oldest person entombed here is Otto von Habsburg150, aged 98 years and 7 months. The next oldest is his mother, Zita of Bourbon-Parma147, the last Austrian empress, at 97 years. Several died at birth and over 25% of those entombed here were five years of age or younger when they died. Emperors buried here: 1. Emperor Matthias2 2. Emperor Ferdinand III27 3. Emperor Leopold I37 4. Emperor Joseph I35 5. Emperor Charles VI40 6. Emperor Francis I Ste...
The vaults consist of an interconnected series of ten subterranean vaulted rooms, built at various times as more space was needed. The visible 107 metal sarcophagiand five heart urns range in style from puritan plain to exuberant rococo. The bodies of 145 nobles, plus urns containing the hearts or cremated remains of four others, are deposited here. There is only one space left.They include 12 Emperors and 18 Empresses. The most recent entombment150was in 2011. From other families there are 32 spouses, plus four others,15 41 47 117 who have found their resting place here. Everyone else in the Imperial Crypt was born with the Habsburgs-only title of Archduke or Archduchess. In 1960, with the various vaults overcrowded, a major rearrangement project began which resulted in the construction of the Children's Columbarium and the New Vault. At the same time many bodies were moved to those new areas, others were moved from the Tuscan Vault and the Ferdinand Vaultand walled up into the cor...
Not all of the significant Habsburgs are entombed here. Those referred to in this article but resting elsewhere are: 1. x415 Emperor Frederick III ("AEIOU") (1415–1493), in the Stephansdom, Vienna. 2. x459 Emperor Maximilian I (1459–1519) →Family Tree Son of Emperor Frederick III.x415 Buried in the St. Georgskathedrale, Wiener Neustadt. 3. x457 Duchess Mary of Burgundy (1457–1482) →Family Tree Wealthy heiress of Burgundy, wife of Emperor Maximilian I.x459 Buried in the Church of Our Lady, Bruges. 4. x478 King Philip I of Castile (1478–1506) →Family Tree Son of Emperor Maximilian I.x459 Buried in the Capilla Real, Granada. 5. x500 Emperor Charles V (1500–1556) →Family Tree Eldest son of King Philip I of Castile.x478 Buried in the crypt of El Escorial, near Madrid. 1. 1.1. his descendant successors as Kings of Spain, in the crypt of El Escorial, near Madrid. 1. x503 Emperor Ferdinand I (1503–1564) →Family Tree Second son of King Philip I of Castilex478 and brother of Emperor Charles V...
A specific place remaining in the Crypt Chapel is reserved for Archduchess Yolande (1923–), wife (1950) of Archduke Carl Ludwig148.There is room for two others along the east wall. Any other entombments would most easily be located along the south wall in theNew Vault.There is also room in theTuscan Vault,but that would not follow the generally chronological arrangement of the tombs. Cremated remains can be accommodated within the piers in the corners of the Ferdinand Vault. Since 1971 members of the family (e.g. Archduke Rudolf (1919–2010)) are mostly entombed in the crypt of the Loretto Chapel of the Benedictine Monastery at Muri, Switzerland, which was founded in 1027 by Count Radebot von Habsburg.
This group covers the founders of the Imperial Crypt (and the first to be buried here), Empress Anna of Tyrol1 and her cousin and husband Emperor Mathias.2 They are shown with their descent from Emperor Friedrich IIIx415 and their relationship to their successor, Emperor Ferdinand II.x578 For the tomb location and specifics on any person buried in the Imperial Crypt, find the tomb number located next to the person's name on the chart below then click on the appropriate group of tomb numbers:...
Emperor Ferdinand III's family
This group shows descendants of Emperor Ferdinand III27 through the extinction of the male Habsburg line with the death of Emperor Charles VI.40 For the tomb location and specifics on any person buried in the Imperial Crypt, find the tomb number located next to the person's name on the chart below then click on the appropriate group of tomb numbers: 1–2, 3–32, 33–40, 41–56, 57–61, 62–100 101–114, 115–141, 142–144, 147–151, (x415–x887 are buried elsewhere).
Empress Maria Theresa's family
The male Habsburg line had become extinct upon the death of Emperor Charles VI40, so Empress Maria Theresa's56 marriage to the Duke of Lorraine55established the House of Habsburg-Lorraine which continues through the following charts and has many living members today. For the tomb location and specifics on any person buried in the Imperial Crypt, find the tomb number located next to the person's name on the chart below then click on the appropriate group of tomb numbers: 1–2, 3–32, 33–40, 41–5...Ducal Crypt (Vienna), for the traditional depository of the visceraof those entombed herePalatinal Crypt, for the burial place of the Hungarian Habsburgs in Buda Castle