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  1. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Francis II, after a devastating defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz . The emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right, though he often contradicted or rivaled the pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy.

  2. The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich), occasionally but unofficially referred to as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, was a polity in Western and Central Europe under the rule of an Emperor, who was elected by the princes and the magistrates of its regions and cities.

  3. Holy Roman emperor, ruler and head of state of the Holy Roman Empire. In 800 Charlemagne became the first such leader when Pope Leo III proclaimed him “emperor of the Romans.” The last Holy Roman emperor was Francis II , who dissolved the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars .

  4. Holy Roman Empire, German Heiliges Römisches Reich, Realm of varying extent in medieval and modern western and central Europe. Traditionally believed to have been established by Charlemagne, who was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in 800, the empire lasted until the renunciation of the imperial title by Francis II in 1806.

  5. The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. It was also known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation from the late fifteenth century onwards.

  6. Jun 22, 2021 · "The Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire ," wrote Voltaire, and this interpretation still dominates the popular imagination, so the Holy Roman Empire is treated as a bad joke, a pale parody of the glory of Rome. But was Voltaire right? Here we will explore the ideology that explains, and perhaps justifies, the name.

  7. Sep 22, 2021 · Debates continue about when exactly the “Holy Roman Empire” began. Both the 9th-century Carolingian and 10th-century Ottonian realms are contenders, although the Latin term sacrum Romanum imperium did not gain widespread currency until the 13th century. In the period c . 1300–1650, the focus of this bibliography, the Empire exhibited ...

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