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  1. 6 days ago · The Manx orthography is unlike that of Irish and Scottish Gaelic, both of which use similar spelling systems derived from written Early Modern Irish, alt. Classical Irish, which was the language of the educated Gaelic elite of both Ireland and Scotland (where it is called Classical Gaelic) until the mid-19th century. In general, these ...

  2. 3 days ago · English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning. Like the orthography of most world languages, English orthography has a broad degree of standardisation. This standardization began to develop when movable type spread to England ...

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    • Terminology
    • Organisation
    • Rank Structure
    • Equipment
    • Diplomatic Protection
    • Vehicles
    • History
    • Inter-Jurisdiction Co-Operation
    • Controversy and Allegations Involving The Police Service
    • Reform Initiatives

    The service was originally named the Civic Guard in English, but in 1923 it became An Garda Síochána in both English and Irish. This is usually translated as "the Guardian(s) of the Peace". Garda Síochána na hÉireann ("of Ireland", Irish pronunciation: [ˈɡaːrd̪ə ˈʃiːxaːn̪ˠə n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ]) appears on its logo but is seldom used elsewhere. At that time, there was a vogue for naming the new institutions of the Irish Free State after counterparts in the French Third Republic; the term "guardians of the peace" (gardiens de la paix, literally 'peacekeepers') had been used since 1870 in French-speaking countries to designate civilian police forces as distinguished from the armed gendarmery, notably municipal police[circular reference] in France, communal guards in Belgium and cantonal policein Switzerland. The full official title of the police service is rarely used in speech. How it is referred to depends on the register being used. It is variously known as An Garda Síochána; the Garda...

    The service is headed by the Garda Commissioner, whose immediate subordinates are two Deputy Commissioners – in charge of "Policing and Security" and "Governance & Strategy", respectively – and a Chief Administrative Officer with responsibility for resource management (personnel, finance, Information and Communications Technology, and accommodation). There is an Assistant Commissioner for each of the four geographical Regions, along with a number dealing with other national support functions. The four geographical GardaRegions, each overseen by an Assistant Commissioner, are: 1. Dublin Metropolitan Region 2. North-Western 3. Eastern 4. Southern At an equivalent or near-equivalent level to the Assistant Commissioners are the positions of Chief Medical Officer, Executive Director of Information and Communications Technology, and Executive Director of Finance. Directly subordinate to the Assistant Commissioners are approximately 40 Chief Superintendents, about half of whom supervise wh...

    A garda allocated to detective duties, up to and including the rank of chief superintendent, is a detective and the word detective (Irish: Bleachtaire) is prefixed to their rank (e.g. detective sergeant, bleachtaire sáirsint).

    Most uniformed members of the Garda Síochána do not routinely carry firearms. Individual Gardaí have been issued ASP extendable batons and pepper spray as their standard issue weapons while handcuffsare provided as restraints. The service, when originally created, was armed, but the Provisional Government reversed the decision and reconstituted the service as an unarmed police service. This was in contrast to the attitude of the British Dublin Castle administration, which refused appeals from the Royal Irish Constabulary that the service be disarmed. In the words of first Commissioner, Michael Staines, TD, "the Garda Síochána will succeed not by force of arms or numbers, but on their moral authority as servants of the people." This reflected the approach in the Dublin Metropolitan Police, which had also been unarmed, but did not extend to the CID detective branch, who were armed from the outset. According to Tom Garvinsuch a decision gave the new force a cultural ace: "the taboo on...

    The Garda Special Detective Unit (SDU) are primarily responsible for providing armed close protection to senior officials in Ireland. They provide full-time armed protection and transport for the President, Taoiseach, Tánaiste, Minister for Justice, Attorney General, Chief Justice, Director of Public Prosecutions, Ambassadors and Diplomats deemed 'at risk', as well as foreign dignitaries visiting Ireland and citizens deemed to require armed protection as designated so by the Garda Commissioner. The Commissioner is also protected by the unit. All cabinet ministers are afforded armed protection at heightened levels of risk when deemed necessary by Garda Intelligence, and their places of work and residences are monitored. Former Presidents and Taoisigh are protected if their security is under threat, otherwise they only receive protection on formal state occasions. The Emergency Response Unit(ERU), a section of the SDU, are deployed on more than 100 VIP protection duties per year.

    Garda patrol cars are white in colour, with a fluorescent yellow and blue-bordered horizontal strip, accompanied by the Garda crest as livery. Full or partial battenburg markingsare used on traffic or roads policing vehicles. RSU/ASU vehicles also have Battenburg markings - as well as a red stripe denoting the fact that it is an armed unit. Unmarked patrol cars are also used in the course of regular, traffic and other duties. Specialist units, such as the ERU, use armoured vehicles for special operations. The Garda Fleet management Section manages the vehicles, totalling approximately 2,750 in 2019, which are located in the various Garda Divisions and specialist units.

    Prior to the creation of the Irish state, policing in Ireland had been undertaken by the quasi-military Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC), with a separate and unarmed Dublin Metropolitan Police (DMP). These were joined in 1919 by a parallel security force loyal to the provisional government, the Irish Republican Police. The early years of the new state saw a gradual process of incorporating these various pre-existing forces into a single centralised, nationwide and civilian organisation. The Civic Guard was formed by the Provisional Government in February 1922 to take over the responsibility of policing the fledgeling Irish Free State. It replaced the Royal Irish Constabulary and the Irish Republican Police of 1919–22. In August 1922 the force accompanied Michael Collins when he met the Lord Lieutenant in Dublin Castle. The Garda Síochána (Temporary Provisions) Act 1923 enacted after the creation of the Irish Free State on 8 August 1923, provided for the creation of "a force of police...

    Northern Ireland

    The Patten Report recommended that a programme of long-term personnel exchanges should be established between the Garda Síochána and the Police Service of Northern Ireland(PSNI). This recommendation was enacted in 2002 by an Inter-Governmental Agreement on Policing Cooperation, which set the basis for the exchange of officer between the two services. There are three levels of exchanges: 1. Personnel exchanges, for all ranks, without policing powers and for a term up to one year 2. Secondments...

    Other jurisdictions

    Since 1989, the Garda Síochána has undertaken United Nations peace-keeping duties. Its first such mission was a 50 strong contingent sent to Namibia. Since then the force has acted in Angola, Cambodia, Mozambique, South Africa, and the former Yugoslavia. More recently, Garda members have served in Cyprus with UNFICYP, and in Kosovo with EULEX Kosovo. The force's first fatality whilst working abroad was Sergeant Paul M. Reid, who was fatally injured while on duty with the United Nations UNPROF...

    The Gardaí have faced complaints or allegations of discourtesy, harassment and perjury. A total of 1,173 complaints were made against the Gardaí in 2005,with over 2000 complaints made in 2017. Some such incidents have attracted broad attention and resulted in a number of reform initiatives—such as those relating to Garda whistleblowers or which led to the Morris and Barr Tribunals.

    Arising from some of the above incidents, the Garda Síochánaunderwent a number of reform initiatives in the early 21st century. The Morris Tribunal, in particular, recommended major changes to the organisation's management, discipline, promotion and accountability arrangements. Many of these recommendations were subsequently implemented under the Garda Síochána Act 2005. It was also stated by the tribunal chairman, Justice Morris, that the code of discipline was extremely complex and, at times, "cynically manipulated" to promote indiscipline across the force. Judicial reviews, for example, were cited as a means for delaying disciplinary action. The fall-out from the Morris Tribunal was considerable. While fifteen members of the force were sacked between 2001 and 2006, and a further 42 resigned in lieu of dismissal in the same period, Commissioner Conroy stated that he was constrained in the responses available to deal with members whose misbehaviour is cited in public inquiries.

    • Gardaí
    • 17,652 (total as of 2019), 14,250 sworn members, 2,944 civilian staff, 458 reserves
  4. This Manual of Style (MoS or MOS) is the style manual for all English Wikipedia articles (though provisions related to accessibility apply across the entire project, not just to a

  5. 3 days ago · Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.

  6. 4 days ago · This is a list of foreign players (players from outside of the island of Ireland) to have played for League of Ireland clubs.. Only players not from the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland are eligible for this list.

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