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  1. The traditional standard Irish alphabet consists of 18 letters: a b c d e f g h i l m n o p r s t u. Thus, it does not contain the following letters used in English: j, k, q, v, w, x, y, z. The vowels may be accented as follows: á é í ó ú . The acute accent over the vowels, called síneadh fada (meaning "long sign"), is ignored for purposes of alphabetisation.

  2. Irish ( Gaeilge in Standard Irish ), sometimes referred to as Gaelic outside Ireland, is a Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, which is a part of the Indo-European language family. Irish originated on the island of Ireland and was the population's first language until the late 18th century.

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    What is the origin of the Irish orthography?

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    How is the Irish language related to Welsh?

    How is the Irish language related to Scottish Gaelic?

    • Thank You
    • Question?
    • Slight Problem with The Pronunciation Guide
    • Spelling Reform Section
    • Use of K
    • What Dialect Are The pronunciations Supposed to Be from?
    • Tengwar Mode For Irish
    • The Word Is
    • Irish Typeface Image
    • Question About Silent Vowels and Broad/Slender Consonants

    Thank you to whomever (plural of 'whomever' is?) wrote this. I have been looking for an explanation of the buailte online and I came upon this. You are all making a contribution to knowledge. Le gach dea-ghuí. Dunlavin Green (talk) 19:22, 5 May 2009 (UTC) 1. As the primary contributor to this page, and on behalf of the other editors of this page, you're welcome and we're glad you like it. (And the word you want is "whoever".) +Angr20:42, 5 May 2009 (UTC) _ _ _ I wanted to give you another thank you for the picture of the "Pay & Display" sign. I looked everywhere trying to figure out why there would occasionally be a 7 stuck in the middle of an Irish sentence. Now I know. Ramseyman (talk) 01:03, 9 November 2011 (UTC)

    Can we have an (rough) english equivalent for all of these? (talk) 00:00, 17 July 2009 (UTC)

    I have only looked at the first few letters I'll admit, but I have already come across a few "errors" in pronunciation. The table shows bhf (broad) pronounced as a w and gives bhfuinneog as an example being pronounced as winn-yohg (obviously in IPA but ...). The problem with this is that it is more typically pronounced as vwinn-yohg in Munster and large parts of Connacht. Aibhneacha is shown here as being pronounced as [avʲnʲəxə], where most will actually pronounce it as [əinʲəxə]. I'm sure a lot of work has gone into these pronunciation tables and I can see there is consistency here, however I would argue that a disclaimer is made to show the variety of Irish being shown. Otherwise we run the risk of showing that sibh (as an example) is pronounced [ʃɪvʲ] everywhere when in actuality it is pronounced as that only in Connacht, Munster and the caighdeán but as [ʃɪːw], [ʃʲwː] or [ʃiːw] in Ulster and parts of North Mayo. --MacTire02 (talk) 21:56, 4 August 2009 (UTC) 1. I've never seen a...

    The new Spelling reform section says, "The Irish Texts Society's 1904 Irish–English bilingual dictionary by Patrick S. Dinneen used traditional spellings." But even Dinneen's dictionary uses some reformed spellings, such as sp and sc instead of sb and sg, -as instead of -us in words like solas, consistent use of éa instead of eu, and eo rather than eó to mark [o:] after a slender consonant. So while many early 20th century texts spell the word for "story" sgeul and the word for "knowledge" eólus, Dinneen spells them scéal and eolas as they're spelled today. —Angr (talk) 15:50, 10 April 2011 (UTC)

    Though the Irish for kilometre is ciliméadar, it is always abbreviated as "km" on road signs. Can anyone say why, if there is no letter K? The article says - "k is the only letter not to be listed by Ó Dónaill." Is it bad Irish on the road signs, or did they think nobody would notice, or does nobody care anyway?? (talk) 15:42, 29 May 2011 (UTC) 1. km is an international symbol for the kilometre, it's the same in all languages. CodeCat (talk) 15:51, 29 May 2011 (UTC) 1. 1.1. Apart from being an international symbol and used in most (though not all) languages, using "cm" for "ciliméadar" would also be confusing as we also have "ceintiméadar" for centimetre. ‣Mac Tíre Cowag16:07, 29 May 2011 (UTC)

    Most examples are given with only one pronunciation, and there's no mention of whether it's supposed to be the “standard” one, the most common one, or the one from a particular dialect. For example, it says ao is pronounced /eː/ in the word aon /eːn̪ˠ/ "one" and its derivatives – well, Foclóir Póca says aon is /i:n/, and there are dialects where ao is normally /eː/, so a statement like that only applies to some dialects, and the article gives no clue as to which ones. Same applies to most of the exceptions (ceann is /canˠ/ according to Foclóir Póca and /caunˠ/ in Munster, beag is /bʲɛɡ/ in FP and (IIRC) /bʲaɡ/ in Ulster, ...) ― A. di M.​plé​dréachtaí23:14, 12 July 2011 (UTC) 1. When I started this page, the examples were in a vaguely Connemara/Aran Islands-ish sort of accent, but perhaps not terribly consistent. Since then I've been meaning to come back and represent all the dialects more consistently and with sources, but have been daunted by the enormity of the task. You can see a...

    In the forthcoming edition of The Hobbit in Irish a Tengwar mode for Irish will be published. Would a description of this be out of scope for the present article? -- Evertype·✆12:18, 16 March 2012 (UTC) 1. I'd think so. In fact, I doubt it would meet the general notability guideline for inclusion in Wikipedia, unless it "has received significant coverage in reliable sources that are independent of the subject", i.e. if it's discussed by people other than the people responsible for creating it and for the translation. Angr (talk) 12:27, 16 March 2012 (UTC)

    I don't speak Irish, I've just read a few things about it. I wonder why the word is is pronounced with an [s] instead of [ʃ]. Shouldn't it be [ɪʃ], since i is a slender consonant? - So is it an exception? Are there more? And could they be listed? Thanks. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 17:39, 13 May 2013 (UTC) 1. Yes, is (both the copula and the conjunction, which is a contraction of agus) is pronounced with [sˠ] despite being next to i. It's an exception. The exception to the exception is that the copula (but not the conjunction) is pronounced [ɪʃ], or just [ʃ], before é, í, iad. So is é a dúirt seo "He's the one who said this" is pronounced [ʃeː dˠuːɾʲtʲ ʃɔ], but is é ina shuí anseo "while he was sitting here" (literally "and him sitting here") is pronounced [ɪsˠ eː ɪnˠə hiː nʃɔ]. Angr (talk) 19:05, 13 May 2013 (UTC)

    This is a low-quality image. The edges of the letters are not smooth, and the letter "names" use some sort of quasi-phonetic spelling. It looks it was put together in an old version of Microsoft Paint. It would be nice if someone redid it. I was thinking particularly of User:Evertype, but if someone else has the necessary typeface (I don't), by all means go ahead and do it. (suoı̣ʇnqı̣ɹʇuoɔ · ʞlɐʇ) nɯnuı̣ɥԀ21:16, 2 July 2014 (UTC) I have original sources! Your typeface is excellent! (for most interested Wikipedia Readers);A very good Bulgarian friend of mine, has original Irish type face construction algorithms...I, myself, can read the original typeface, (re Dineen 1927).Михал Орела 17:13, 14 August 2014 (UTC) — Preceding unsigned comment added by MihalOrela (talk • contribs) Replaced Uncial_alphabet.png with SVG version Uncial_alphabet.svg. —☸ Moilleadóir ☎06:32, 9 August 2021 (UTC)

    Have the silent vowels that indicate broad/slender been inserted to indicate this, or were they originally really there, affecting the consonants, and have these vowels subsequently been lost? — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 21:41, 7 July 2015 (UTC) 1. It's a mixture of both, but mostly they were inserted to indicate slenderness. This was done already in Old Irish, but the rules were different then and may not always have been consistent. Old Irish didn't require consonants to be surrounded by the same type of vowel on both sides. Instead, the slenderness was normally implied by the following vowel only. A slenderising silent "i" was added before a consonant to show slenderness when a slenderising vowel did not already follow it, which was primarily at the end of a word but also in cases where syllables containing "e" or "i" had disappeared, leaving the slenderness as an after-effect. Most importantly, word-final consonants that were preceded by "e" were ge...

  4. › wiki › CrosswordCrossword - Wikipedia

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    American-style grid
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    Capitalization of answer letters is conventionally ignored; crossword puzzles are typically filled in, and their answer sheets are almost universally published, in all caps, except in the rare cases of ambigrams. This ensures a proper name can have its initial capitalletter checked with a non-capitalizable letter in the intersecting clue.

    Straight or quick

    Some crossword clues, called straight or quick clues, are simple definitions of the answers. Some clues may feature anagrams, and these are usually explicitly described as such. Often, a straight clue is not in itself sufficient to distinguish between several possible answers, either because multiple synonymous answers may fit or because the clue itself is a homonym (e.g., "Lead" as in to be ahead in a contest or "Lead" as in the element), so the solver must make use of checks to establish th...


    The constraints of the American-style grid (in which every letter is checked) often require a fair number of answers not to be dictionary words. As a result, the following ways to clue abbreviations and other non-words, although they can be found in "straight" British crosswords, are much more common in American ones: 1. Abbreviations, the use of a foreign language, variant spellings, or other unusual word tricks are indicated in the clue. A crossword creator might choose to clue the answer S...

    These are common crossword variants that vary more from a regular crossword than just an unusual grid shape or unusual clues; these crossword variants may be based on different solving principles and require a different solving skill set.

    The phrase "cross word puzzle" was first written in 1862 by Our Young Folks in the United States. Crossword-like puzzles, for example Double Diamond Puzzles, appeared in the magazine St. Nicholas, published since 1873. Another crossword puzzle appeared on September 14, 1890, in the Italian magazine Il Secolo Illustrato della Domenica. It was designed by Giuseppe Airoldi and titled "Per passare il tempo" ("To pass the time"). Airoldi's puzzle was a four-by-four grid with no shaded squares; it included horizontal and vertical clues. Crosswords in England during the 19th century were of an elementary kind, apparently derived from the word square, a group of words arranged so the letters read alike vertically and horizontally, and printed in children's puzzle books and various periodicals. On December 21, 1913, Arthur Wynne, a journalist from Liverpool, England, published a "word-cross" puzzle in the New York Worldthat embodied most of the features of the modern genre. This puzzle is fr...

    Due to the large amount of words ending on a vowel, Italian crossword-makers have perhaps the most difficult task. The right margin and the bottom can be particularly difficult to put together. From such a perspective, Swedish crossword-makers have a far easier task. Especially in the large picture crosswords, both conjugation of verbs and declension of adjectives and nouns are allowed. A Swedish clue like "kan sättas i munnen" = "sked" ("can be put in the mouth" = "spoon") can be grammatically changed; "den kan sättas i munnen" = "skeden" ("itcan be put in the mouth" = "the spoon"), as the definite form of a noun includes declension.

    American-style crosswords

    In typical themed American-style crosswords, the theme is created first, as a set of symmetric long across answers will be needed around which the grid can be created. Since the grid will typically have 180-degree rotational symmetry, the answers will need to be also: thus a typical 15×15 square American puzzle might have two 15-letter entries and two 13-letter entries that could be arranged appropriately in the grid (e.g., one 15-letter entry in the third row, and the other symmetrically in...

    Software that aids in creating crossword puzzles has been written since at least 1976; one popular example was Crossword Magic for the Apple II in the 1980s. The earliest software relied on people to input a list of fill words and clues, and automatically maps the answers onto a suitable grid. This is a search problemin computer science because there are many possible arrangements to be checked against the rules of construction. Any given set of answers might have zero, one, or multiple legal arrangements. Modern open source libraries exist that attempt to efficiently generate legal arrangements from a given set of answers. In the late 1990s, the transition began from mostly hand-created arrangements to computer-assisted, which creators generally say has allowed authors to produce more interesting and creative puzzles, reducing crosswordese. Modern software includes large databases of clues and answers, allowing the computer to randomly select words for the puzzle, potentially with...

    Originally Petherbridge called the two dimensions of the crossword puzzle "Horizontal" and "Vertical". Among various numbering schemes, the standard became that in which only the start squares of each word were numbered, from left to right and top to bottom. "1 Horizontal" and "1 Vertical" and the like were names for the clues, the cross words, or the grid locations, interchangeably. Later in the Timesthese terms commonly became "across" and "down" and notations for clues could either use the words or the letters "A" and "D", with or without hyphens.

    The Crossword Obsession by Coral Amende ISBN 0-425-18157-X
    Crossworld by Marc Romano ISBN 0-7679-1757-X
    Alan Connor (2015). The Crossword Century: 100 Years of Witty Wordplay, Ingenious Puzzles, and Linguistic Mischief. Avery. ISBN 978-1592409389.
  5. "Irish orthography has the reputation of being very difficult to learn and of bearing only a tenuous relationship to pronunciation. This reputation is not entirely undeserved; the statements on this page must be interpreted as tendencies, not hard and fast rules.

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    The first Irish translation of the New Testament begun by Nicholas Walsh, Bishop of Ossory until his demise in 1587; it was continued by his assistant John Kearney with Dr. Nehemiah Donnellan, Archbishop of Tuam, this was finally completed by Uiliam Ó ‘Domhnaill (who had succeeded Bishop Donnellan) then published during 1602. The work of translating the Old Testament was undertaken by William Bedel: it was not published until 1680 by Narcissus March, Archbishop of Dublin. John Richardson published a revised edition of the 1606 Common Prayer Book in 1712. [x]

    Several dictionaries were published over the years: from ‘The Royal Dictionary’ of 1699 & 1729 by Abel Boyer to The English – Irish Dictionary of Begley & Mc Curtain in 1732. John O ‘Brien published ‘Foclóir Gaoidhilge – sags – béarla Or’ in 1768. An English – Irish edition of 1814 by Thaddaeus Connellan was produced. During1855 an English – Irish edition by Daniel Foley was printed. Edward O’ Reilly’s Irish – English 1864 edition was later revised by John O ‘Donovan. [xi] The Irish Texts Society’s 1904 Irish – English Bilingual Dictionary by Patrick S Dineen used traditional spellings. [xii] Timothy O ‘Neill Lane published Foclói béarla – Gaedglige during 1917. An English – Irish phrase Dictionary was published by Lambert Mc Kenna in 1922. [xiii] Following the creation of the Irish Free State during 1922 all Acts of the Oireachtas included Dineen’s spellings plus were translated into Irish. These were followed by several simplifications over the years. [xiv]

    The following are some old spellings criticized by T. F. O ‘Reilly with their simplifications from old Spelling to New Spelling: Beirbhiughadh toBeiriú, Imthighthe toImithe, Faghbháil toFáil, Urradhas to Urrús also Filidheacht toFilíocht. His publication ‘Irish Dialects past & present; with Chapters on Scottish & Manx’, 1932 Brown & Nolan Dublin was expanded in 1947, then republished during 1957 combined with the standard grammar of 1953 It attracted initial criticism as unhistorical or artificial; several spellings failed to represent the pronunciation of many dialects, while others preserved letters not pronounced in any dialect. Its status was reinforced by use in the civil service also as a guide for Tomás de Bhaldraithe‘s 1959 English–Irish dictionary. During the early 1940’s Seamus Dalton issued his own guidelines re standardization of Irish spelling & grammar. [xv]

    Eamon de Valera, President of the Executive Council from the 1932 Election insisted that policy reverted to older spelling which was then used for the 1937 Constitution. During 1941 he decided to publish a ‘popular’ edition of the Constitution. De Valera also established a committee of experts that failed to agree to recommendations; instead the Oireachtas’s own translation service prepared a booklet; ‘Litriú na Gaeilge: lámhleabhair an Chaighdeáin Oifigiüil’ which was published during 1945. [xvi]

    The Oireachtas’s own translation in 1945 printed a booklet ‘Litiúna Gailge: Lámhleabhar an Chaighdeain Oifigiúil.’ (Published in Early Modern History1500-1700 issue 5 Sept – Oct 2012 Vol 20.) This booklet was expanded during 1947 then republished as ‘An Caighdheán Oifigiúi’ in 1959, combined with a standard graminer of 1953. During 1959 Tomas de bHaldraille’s English – Irish Dictionary was mandated within the Irish Civil Service. [xvii] This publication ‘An Introduction to Old Irish (Introduction to Older Languages)’ 1975 Lehmann R. P. M. & Lehmann W. P. was intended to enable students to understand the Old Irish writings plus spellings. [xviii] During 1977 Niall Ó ‘Dónaill’s 1977 Irish – English was mandated into the Irish Civil Service. [xix] A review of the written standard, including spelling, was initiated during 2010, with a view to improving “simplicity, internal consistency, and logic.” [xx] An updated publication of ‘Caishdean Oifiguil’ occurred during 2017. [xxi]

    The grammar of early Modern Irish was initially presented in a series of grammatical Tracts. These were edited & published by Osborn Bergin as a supplement to Éiru between 1916 to 1955. [xxii] Irish has a case system like Latin or German. It has four cases showing functions of nouns or pronouns in a sentence. In phonology it exhibits initial sandi in which the first consonant of a word is modified according to the prehistoric finial sound of the previous word in the phrase, eg An tobar ‘the wall’ or Mo thobar ‘My wall.’ [xxiii]

    Presently there are three main dialects in the Irish language: Munster (An Mhumháin), Connnacht (Connachta) also Ulster (Ulaidh). The Munster dialect is spoken mainly in Kerry (Ciarraí) plus Muskerry (Múscraí) in the western part of Cork (Contae Chorcai). The Connacht dialect is spoken mainly in Connamara (Conamara), the Aran Islands (Oiléain) also in Tourmakeady (Thur Mhic Éadaigh) in Co. Mayo (Maigh Eo). The Ulster dialect is spoken in the Rosses (na Rosa) area while in Gweedore (Gaoth Dobhair) they speak mainly in the Ulster dialect. [xxiv]

    In Modern Irish there are just a few sounds not found in some dialects of English. It has an unique spelling system. Spoken Irish has only a few sounds not found in some dialects of English. Although it may appear complicated it is in fact more regular that English spelling. Except for a few common words, that have an unstressed prefix – all words are sharply accented on the final syllable. [xxv] Gaelic Irish Type today with the buailte are rarely used except for when ‘traditional’ type is required, ie as the Motto of UCD, on Coat of Arms or as symbol of Óglaigh na Éireann. [xxvi] Irish Language has experienced a revival with a radio service, a television service plus new publications. There has been a growth in Irish – medium education. [xxvii] The Geltacht areas, several Gaelscoileanna throughout Ireland, official Language Act 2003, RTE, TG4, Radio na Gaeltachta also Foinse are the modern ways of protecting the Irish Language. [xxviii]

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