(EN) Kyoto, su Enciclopedia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. (EN) Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities), su UNESCO. (EN) Kyoto, su Hanami Web - Inside Japan (archiviato dall'url originale il 27 settembre 2006). (EN) Kyoto City Web, su city.kyoto.jp. Geisha: il tirocinio, su Il Giappone in Italia
The Rashōmon in Kyoto was the grander of the two city gates built during the Heian period (794–1185). Built in 789, it was 106 feet (32 m) wide by 26 feet (7.9 m) high, with a 75-foot (23 m) stone wall and topped by a ridge-pole.
The kuge (公家) was a Japanese aristocratic class that dominated the Japanese Imperial Court in Kyoto. The kuge were important from the establishment of Kyoto as the capital during the Heian period in the late 8th century until the rise of the Kamakura shogunate in the 12th century, at which point it was eclipsed by the bushi.