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  1. Irish traditional music (also known as Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants) is a genre of folk music that developed in Ireland . In A History of Irish Music (1905), W. H. Grattan Flood wrote that, in Gaelic Ireland, there were at least ten instruments in general use. These were the cruit (a small harp) and clairseach (a bigger harp ...

  2. › wiki › PuntuLLIPuntuLLI - Wikipedia

    PuntuLLI was the official sponsor of the I Campionatu de Bandas de Gaitas de País Llïonés (2008) (Ist Leonese Country Bagpipe Bands Championship) and the official supporter of the III Día de la Llingua Llïonesa (2008) (IIIrd Leonese Language Day).

    • Not officially introduced; proposed in 2006
    • Unofficial proposal
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    • Proposed top-level domain
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    What kind of music do they listen to in Ireland?

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  4. Charles Villiers Stanford (1852–1924) and Hamilton Harty (1879–1941) were among the last emigrants in Irish music, combining a late romantic musical language with Irish folklorism. Their contemporary in Ireland was the Italian immigrant Michele Esposito (1855–1929), a figure of seminal importance in Irish music who arrived in Ireland in 1882.

  5. › wiki › Asturian_(AsturleoneseAsturian language - Wikipedia

    Asturian is part of a wider linguistic group, the Astur-Leonese languages. The number of speakers is estimated at 100,000 (native) and 450,000 (second language). The dialects of the Astur-Leonese language family are traditionally classified in 3 groups: Western, Central, and Eastern.

    • 351,791 (2017), 641,502 L1 + L2 speakers (2017)
    • Asturias
  6. Béarnese dialect. Béarnese is a dialect of Gascon spoken in Béarn (in the French department of the Pyrénées Atlantiques, in southwestern France ). As a written language, it benefited from the fact that Béarn was an independent state from the mid-14th century to 1620. Béarnese was used in legal and administrative documents long after most ...

    • History
    • Status and Legislation
    • Historical, Social and Cultural Aspects
    • Dialects
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    As­turian is the his­tor­i­cal lan­guage of As­turias, por­tions of the Span­ish provinces of León and Zamora and the area sur­round­ing Mi­randa do Douro in north­east­ern Portugal. Like the other Ro­mance lan­guages of the Iber­ian penin­sula, it evolved from Vul­gar Latin dur­ing the early Mid­dle Ages. As­turian was closely linked with the King­dom of As­turias (718–910) and the en­su­ing Leonese king­dom. The lan­guage had con­tri­bu­tions from pre-Ro­man lan­guages spo­ken by the As­tures, an Iber­ian Celtic tribe, and the post-Ro­man Ger­manic lan­guages of the Visig­oths and Suevi. The tran­si­tion from Latin to As­turian was slow and grad­ual; for a long time they co-ex­isted in a diglos­sic re­la­tion­ship, first in the King­dom of As­turias and later in that of As­turias and Leon. Dur­ing the 12th, 13th and part of the 14th cen­turies As­tur-Leonese was used in the king­dom's of­fi­cial doc­u­ments, with many ex­am­ples of agree­ments, do­na­tions, wills and com­mer­cial...

    Ef­forts have been made since the end of the Fran­coist pe­riod in 1974 to pro­tect and pro­mote Asturian. In 1994, there were 100,000 na­tive speak­ers and 450,000 sec­ond-lan­guage speak­ers able to speak (or un­der­stand) Asturian. How­ever, the lan­guage is en­dan­gered; there has been a steep de­cline in the num­ber of speak­ers over the last cen­tury. Law 1/93 of 23 March on the Use and Pro­mo­tion of the As­turian Lan­guage ad­dresses the issue, and ac­cord­ing to ar­ti­cle four of the As­turias Statute of Autonomy:"The As­turian lan­guage will enjoy pro­tec­tion. Its use, teach­ing and dif­fu­sion in the media will be fur­thered, whilst its local di­alects and vol­un­tary ap­pren­tice­ship will al­ways be re­spected". As­turian, how­ever, is in a legally hazy po­si­tion. The Span­ish Con­sti­tu­tion has not been fully ap­plied re­gard­ing the of­fi­cial recog­ni­tion of lan­guages in the au­tonomous com­mu­ni­ties. The am­bi­gu­ity of the Statute of Au­ton­omy, which recog­n...

    Literary history

    Al­though some 10th-cen­tury doc­u­ments have the lin­guis­tic fea­tures of As­turian, nu­mer­ous ex­am­ples (such as writ­ings by no­taries, con­tracts and wills) begin in the 13th century. Early ex­am­ples are the 1085 Fuero de Avilés (the old­est parch­ment pre­served in Asturias) and the 13th-cen­tury Fuero de Oviedo and the Leonese ver­sion of the Fueru Xulgu. The 13th-cen­tury doc­u­ments were the laws for towns, cities and the gen­eral population. By the sec­ond half of the 16th cen­tu...

    Use and distribution

    As­tur-Leonese's ge­o­graphic area ex­ceeds As­turias, and that the lan­guage known as Leonese in the au­tonomous com­mu­nity of Castile and León is ba­si­cally the same as the As­turian spo­ken in As­turias. The As­turian-Leonese lin­guis­tic do­main cov­ers most of the prin­ci­pal­ity of As­turias, the north­ern and west­ern province of León, the north­east­ern province of Zamora (both in Castile and León), west­ern Cantabria and the Mi­randa do Douro re­gion in the east­ern Bra­gança Dis­t...


    Tra­di­tional, pop­u­lar place names of the prin­ci­pal­ity's towns are sup­ported by the law on usage of As­turian, the prin­ci­pal­ity's 2003–07 plan for es­tab­lish­ing the language and the work of the Xunta As­esora de Toponimia, which re­searches and con­firms the As­turian names of re­quest­ing vil­lages, towns, con­ceyos and cities (50 of 78 con­ceyosas of 2012).

    As­turian has sev­eral di­alects. Reg­u­lated by the Acad­e­mia de la Llingua As­turi­ana, it is mainly spo­ken in As­turias (ex­cept in the west, where Gali­cian-As­turian is spo­ken). The di­alect spo­ken in the ad­join­ing area of Castile and León is known as Leonese. As­turian is tra­di­tion­ally di­vided into three di­alec­tal areas, shar­ing traits with the di­alect spo­ken in León:west­ern, cen­tral and east­ern. The di­alects are mu­tu­ally in­tel­li­gi­ble. Cen­tral As­turian, with the most speak­ers (more than 80 per­cent) is the basis for stan­dard As­turian. The first As­turian gram­mar was pub­lished in 1998, and the first dic­tio­nary in 2000. West­ern As­turian is spo­ken be­tween the Navia and Nalón Rivers, in the west of the province of León (where it is known as Leonese) and in the provinces of Zamora and Sala­manca. Fem­i­nine plu­rals end in -as,and the falling diph­thongs /ei/ and /ou/are main­tained. Cen­tral As­turian is spo­ken be­tween the Sella River and th...

    As­turian is one of the As­tur-Leonese lan­guages which form part of the Iber­ian Ro­mance lan­guages, close to Gali­cian-Por­tuguese and Castil­ian and fur­ther re­moved from Navarro-Aragonese. It is an in­flect­ing, fu­sional, head-ini­tial and de­pen­dent-mark­ing lan­guage. Its word order is sub­ject–verb–ob­ject (in de­clar­a­tive sen­tences with­out top­i­cal­iza­tion).

    Primary and secondary

    Al­though Span­ish is the of­fi­cial lan­guage of all schools in As­turias, in many schools chil­dren are al­lowed to take As­turian-lan­guage classes from age 6 to 16. Elec­tive classes are also of­fered from 16 to 19. Cen­tral As­turias (Nalón and Cau­dal co­mar­cas) has the largest per­cent­age of As­turian-lan­guage stu­dents, with al­most 80 per­cent of pri­mary-school stu­dents and 30 per­cent of sec­ondary-school stu­dents in As­turian classes. Xixón, Uviéu, Eo-Navia and Ori­entealso h...


    Ac­cord­ing to ar­ti­cle six of the Uni­ver­sity of Oviedo char­ter, "The Uni­ver­sity of Oviedo, due to its his­tor­i­cal, so­cial and eco­nomic links with the Prin­ci­pal­ity of As­turias, will de­vote par­tic­u­lar at­ten­tion to the cul­tural as­pects and col­lec­tive in­ter­ests of As­turias. The As­turian Lan­guage will be treated ap­pro­pri­ately in ac­cor­dance with leg­is­la­tion. No­body will be dis­crim­i­nated against for using it".As­turian can be used at the uni­ver­sity in ac­c...

    As­turian gov­ern­ment websites, coun­cil web­pages, blogs, en­ter­tain­ment web­pages and so­cial net­works exist. Free soft­ware is of­fered in As­turian, and Ubuntu of­fers As­turian as an op­er­at­ing-sys­tem language. Free soft­ware in the lan­guage is avail­able from De­bian, Fe­dora, Fire­fox, Thun­der­bird, Li­bre­Of­fice, VLC, GNOME, Chromium and KDE. Minecraftalso has an As­turian trans­la­tion. Wikipedia of­fers an As­turian ver­sionof it­self, with 100,000+ pages as of De­cem­ber 2018.

    Dirección Xeneral de Política Llingüística del Gobiernu del Principáu d'Asturies – Bureau of Asturian Linguistic Politics (Government of the Principality of Asturias)
    Asturian grammar in English Archived 2017-10-11 at the Wayback Machine
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