Leonese (Leonese: Llionés, Asturian: Lleonés) is a set of vernacular Romance dialects currently spoken in northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal. In this narrow sense, Leonese is distinct from the dialects grouped ...
Usage of glossonyms. Given the low social and political acceptance of referring to the language in Asturias as Leonese, and the one in other parts of the domain (such as León or Zamora) as Asturian (even though it is virtually the same language), a significant part of the authors and specialists prefer to refer to all the dialects collectively as Asturllionés or Asturleonés, although others ...
- Spain (Asturias, northwestern Castile and León), Northeastern Portugal (Terra de Miranda), Some authors include Cantabria and parts of Extremadura
- Indo-EuropeanItalicRomanceWesternIbero-RomanceWest IberianAsturleonese
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Irish ( Gaeilge in Standard Irish ), sometimes controversially known as Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, which is a part of the Indo-European language family. Irish originated on the island of Ireland and was the population's first language until the late 18th century.
Béarnese dialect. Béarnese is a dialect of Gascon spoken in Béarn (in the French department of the Pyrénées Atlantiques, in southwestern France ). As a written language, it benefited from the fact that Béarn was an independent state from the mid-14th century to 1620. Béarnese was used in legal and administrative documents long after most ...
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The 2001 census showed that 1327 (1262 Guernsey-born) or 2% of the population speak the language fluently while 3% fully understand the language. However most of these, 70% or 934 of the 1327 fluent speakers, are over 64 years old. Among the young only 0.1% or one in a thousand are fluent speakers. However, 14% of the population claim some understanding of the language. 1. L'Assembllaïe d'Guernesiais, an association for speakers of the language founded in 1957, has published a periodical. Les Ravigoteurs, another association, has published a storybook and cassette for children. 2. Forest School hosts an annual speaking contest of the island's primary school children (Year 6). 3. The annual Eisteddfodprovides an opportunity for performances in the language, and radio and newspaper outlets furnish regular media output. 4. There is some teaching of the language in voluntary classes in schools in Guernsey. 5. Evening classes are available, as of 2013. 6. Lunchtime classes are offered at...Guernsey poet George Métivier (1790–1881) – nicknamed the Guernsey Burns, was the first to produce a dictionary of the Norman language in the Channel Islands, the Dictionnaire Franco-Normand (1870)...Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte published the Gospel of Matthew by George Métivierin Dgèrnésiais in London in 1863 as part of his philological research.Like Métivier, Tam Lenfestey(1818–1885) published poetry in Guernsey newspapers and in book form.Denys Corbet (1826–1909) described himself as the Draïn Rimeux (last poet), but literary production continued. Corbet is best known for his poems, especially the epic L'Touar de Guernesy, a picares...Thomas Martin translated the whole Bible into Guernésiais and this has never been published.
Metathesisof /r/ is common in Guernésiais, by comparison with Sercquiais and Jèrriais. Other examples are pourmenade (promenade), persentaïr (present), terpid(tripod).
De Garis, Marie (5 November 1982). Dictiounnaire Angllais-Guernésiais. Phillimore & Co Ltd. ISBN 978-0-85033-462-3.
Jèrriais is recognised as a regional language by the British and Irish governments within the framework of the British-Irish Council. On 13 February 2019, the States of Jersey adopted Jèrriais as an official language, and the language is set to be used on signage and official letter headings.
- Classification and Relation with Portuguese
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Modern Galician and Portuguese originated from a common medieval ancestor designated variously by modern linguists as Galician-Portuguese (or as Medieval Galician, Medieval Portuguese, Old Galician or Old Portuguese). This common ancestral stage developed from Vulgar Latin in the territories of the old Kingdom of Galicia, Galicia and Northern Portugal, as a Western Romance language. In the 13th century it became a written and cultivated language with two main varieties, but during the 14th century the standards of these varieties, Galician and Portuguese, began to diverge, as Portuguese became the official language of the independent kingdom of Portugal and its chancellery, while Galician was the language of the scriptoria of the lawyers, noblemen and churchmen of the Kingdom of Galicia, then integrated in the crown of Castileand open to influence from Spanish language, culture, and politics. During the 16th century the Galician language stopped being used in legal documentation, be...
Galician is spoken by some three million people, including most of the population of Galicia and the numerous Galician communities established elsewhere, in Spain (Madrid, Barcelona, Biscay), in other European cities (Andorra la Vella, Geneva, London, Paris), and in the Americas (New York, New Jersey, Buenos Aires, Cordoba/Argentina, Montevideo, Mexico City, Havana, Caracas, San Juan in Puerto Rico, São Paulo, Managua, Mayagüez, Ponce, Panama City). Galician is today official, together with the Spanish language, in the autonomous community of Galicia, where it is recognized as the autochthonous language (lingua propia), being by law the first language of the local administrations and governments. It is supposed by law to be taught bilingually, alongside Spanish, in both primary and secondary education, although the accomplishment of this law is allegedly doubted. It is also used at the three universities established in Galicia, having also the consideration of official language of t...
Latinate Galician charters from the 8th century onward show that the local written Latin was heavily influenced by local spoken Romance, yet is not until the 12th century that there is evidence for the identification of the local language as a language different from Latin itself.During this same 12th century there are full Galician sentences being inadvertently used inside Latin texts, while its first reckoned use as a literary language dates to the last years of this same century. The linguistic stage from the 13th to the 15th centuries is usually known as Galician-Portuguese (or Old Portuguese, or Old Galician) as an acknowledgement of the cultural and linguistic unity of Galicia and Portugal during the Middle Ages, as the two linguistic varieties differed only in dialectal minor phenomena. This language flourished during the 13th and 14th centuries as a language of culture, developing a rich lyric tradition of which some 2000 compositions (cantigas, meaning 'songs') have been pr...
Some authors are of the opinion that Galician possesses no real dialects. Despite this, Galician local varieties are collected in three main dialectal blocks, each block comprising a series of areas, being local linguistic varieties that are all mutually intelligible. Some of the main features which distinguish the three blocks are: 1. The resolution of medieval nasalized vowels and hiatus: these sometimes turned into diphthongs in the east, while in the center and west the vowels in the hiatus were sometimes assimilated. Later, in the eastern—except Ancarese Galician—and central blocks, the nasal trait was lost, while in the west the nasal trait usually developed into an implosive nasal consonant /ŋ/.[clarification needed] In general, these led to important dialectal variability in the inflection in genre and number of words ended in a nasal consonant. So, from medieval irmão 'brother', ladrões 'robbers', irmãas 'sisters' developed eastern Galician irmao, ladrois, irmás; central Ga...
Galician allows pronominal clitics to be attached to indicative and subjunctive forms, as does Portuguese, unlike modern Spanish. After many centuries of close contact between the two languages, Galician has also adopted many loan words from Spanish, and some calquesof Spanish syntax. Galician usually makes the difference according to gender and categorizes words as masculine "o rapaz" (the young man) or feminine "a rapaza" (the young woman). This difference is present in the articles "o / a / os/ as" (the), nouns "o can / a cadela" (the dog / the (female) dog), pronouns "el / ela", (he / she) and adjectives "bonitiño / bonitiña" (pretty, beautiful). There is also a neuter set of demonstrative pronouns "isto, iso, aquilo" (this / that). The most typical ending for masculine words is -o, whereas the most typical ending for feminine is -a "o prato / a tixola" (the plate / the frying pan). The difference in the grammatical gender of a word may correspond to a real gender difference in...
The current official Galician orthography is guided by the "Normas ortográficas e morfolóxicas do Idioma Galego" (NOMIGa), first introduced in 1982, by the Royal Galician Academy (RAG), based on a report by the Instituto da Lingua Galega (ILG). These norms were not accepted by some sectors desiring a norm closer to modern Portuguese (see reintegrationism). In July 2003, the Royal Galician Academy modified the language normative to admit and promote some archaic Galician-Portuguese forms conserved in modern Portuguese, merging the NOMIG and the main proposals of the moderate sectors of reintegrationism; the resulting orthography is used by the vast majority of media, cultural production and virtually all official matters including education. There still exists a reintegrationist movement that opts for the use of writing systems that range from adapted to whole Portuguese orthography.
Castro, Olga (February 2013). "Talking at cross-purposes? The missing link between feminist linguistics and translation studies". Gender and Language. 7 (1): 35–58. doi:10.1558/genl.v7i1.35. Examin...
Galician guides: 1. lingua.gal– Galician government's portal on the Galician language 2. LOIA: Open guide to Galician Language. 3. Basic information on Galician language (in Galician, Spanish, and English) Records, phonetic and dialectology: 1. Arquivo do Galego Oral– An archive of records of Galician speakers. 2. A Nosa Fala– Sound recordings of the different dialects of the Galician language. 3. Amostra comparativa– Comparison between Galician, Portuguese and Brazilian-Portuguese pronunciation (with sound files) (reintegrationist Galician) Corpora: 1. Tesouro medieval informatizado da lingua galega. (in Galician) 2. Corpus Xelmirez– A corpus on medieval Galician documentation, in Galician, Latin, and Spanish. 3. Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. (in English and Galician) Dictionaries: 1. Royal Galician Academy Dictionary (in Galician) 2. Appendix:Galician pronouns– on Wiktionary 3. English-Galician CLUVI Online Dictionary(official Galician), ) 4. Galician – English Dictionar...
Munster Irish (Irish: Gaelainn na Mumhan) is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Munster. Gaeltacht regions in Munster are found in the Gaeltachtaí of the Dingle Peninsula in west County Kerry, in the Iveragh Peninsula in south Kerry, in Cape Clear Island off the coast of west County Cork, in Muskerry West; Cúil Aodha, Ballingeary, Ballyvourney, Kilnamartyra, and ...
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Menéndez Pidal used "Leonese" for the entire linguistic area, including Asturias. This designation has been replaced by Ibero-Romance scholars with "Asturian-Leonese", but "Leonese" is still often used to denote Asturian-Leonese by non-speakers of Asturian or Mirandese.
In Leonese, any of five vowel phonemes, /a, e, i, o, u/, may occur in stressed position and the two archiphonemes /I/, /U/ and the phoneme /a/ may occur in unstressed position.[full citation needed]
Leonese has two genders (masculine and feminine) and two numbers (singular and plural). The main masculine noun and adjective endings are -u for singular and -os for plural. Typical feminine endings are -a for singular and -as for plural. Masculine and feminine nouns ending in -e in the singular take -esfor the plural.
The native languages of Leon, Zamora, Asturias, and the Terra de Miranda in Portugal are the result of the evolution of Latin introduced by Roman conquerors in the region. Their colonization and organization led to the Conventus Astururum, with its capital at Asturica Augusta (present-day Astorga, Spain, the centre of Romanizationfor the indigenous tribes). The city of Astorga was sacked by the Visigoths in the 5th century, and never regained its form...
Use and distribution
Although the Astur-Leonese linguistic domain covers most of the principality of Asturias, the north and west of the province of Leon, the northeast of Zamora, both provinces in Castile and León, and the region of Miranda do Douro in the east of the Portuguese district of Bragança, this article focuses on the autonomous community of Castile and León.Julio Borrego Nieto, in Manual de dialectología española. El español de España (1996), wrote that the area in where Leon...
Leonese literature includes: 1. Benigno Suárez Ramos, El tío perruca, 1976. ISBN 978-84-400-1451-1. 2. Cayetano Álvarez Bardón, Cuentos en dialecto leonés, 1981. ISBN 978-84-391-4102-0. 3. Xuan Bello, Nel cuartu mariellu, 1982. ISBN 978-84-300-6521-9. 4. Miguel Rojo, Telva ya los osos, 1994. ISBN 978-84-8053-040-8. 5. Manuel García Menéndez, Corcuspin el Rozcayeiru, 1984. ISBN 978-84-600-3676-0. 6. Manuel García Menéndez, Delina nel valle'l Faloupu, 1985. ISBN 978-84-600-4133-7. 7. Eva González Fernández, Poesía completa : 1980-1991, 1991. ISBN 978-84-86936-58-7. 8. VV.AA., Cuentos de Lleón - Antoloxía d'escritores lleoneses de güei, 1996. ISBN 84-87562-12-4. 9. Roberto González-Quevedo, L.lume de l.luz, 2002. ISBN 978-84-8168-323-3. 10. Roberto González-Quevedo, Pol sendeiru la nueite, 2002. ISBN 978-84-95640-37-6. 11. Roberto González-Quevedo, Pan d'amore : antoloxía poética 1980-2003, 2004. ISBN 978-84-95640-95-6. 12. Roberto González-Quevedo, El Sil que baxaba de la nieve, 2...García Gil, Hector. 2008. Asturian-Leonese: linguistic, sociolinguistic, and legal aspects. Mercator legislation. Working Paper 25. Barcelona: CIEMEN.González Riaño, Xosé Antón; García Arias, Xosé Lluis: "II Estudiu Sociollingüísticu de Lleón: Identidá, conciencia d'usu y actitúes llingüístiques de la población lleonesa". Academia de la Llingua...López-Morales, H.: "Elementos leoneses en la lengua del teatro pastoril de los siglos XV y XVI". Actas del II Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas. Instituto Español de la Universidad de Nimega. H...Galmés de Fuentes, Álvaro; Catalán, Diego (1960). Trabajos sobre el dominio románico leonés. Editorial Gredos. ISBN 978-84-249-3436-1.Gessner, Emil. «Das Altleonesische: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Altspanischen».Hanssen, Friedrich Ludwig Christian (1896). Estudios sobre la conjugación Leonesa. Impr. Cervantes.Hanssen, Friedrich Ludwig Christian (1910). «Los infinitivos leoneses del Poema de Alexandre». Bulletin Hispanique (12).