Irish ( Gaeilge in Standard Irish) is a Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, which is a part of the Indo-European language family. Irish originated on the island of Ireland and was the population's first language until the late 18th century.
O.Ir. clocc meaning "bell"; into Old High German as glocka, klocka (whence Modern German Glocke) and back into English via Flemish; cf also Welsh cloch but the giving language is Old Irish via the hand-bells used by early Irish missionaries. colleen (from cailín meaning "young woman") a girl (usually referring to an Irish girl) (OED). corrie
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Some Irish names have apparent equivalents in other languages, but they are not etymologically related. Áine (meaning "brightness" or "radiance") is accepted as Anna and Anne (Áine was the name of an Irish Celtic goddess). Some Irish given names may have no equivalent in English (being simply spelt phonetically in an Anglo-Roman way).
This article discusses the grammar of the Irish language . The morphology of Irish is in some respects typical of an Indo-European language. Nouns are declined for number and case, and verbs for person and number. Nouns are classified by masculine or feminine gender. Other aspects of Irish morphology, while typical for an Insular Celtic ...
Gaeltacht (/ ˈ ɡ eɪ l t ə x t / GAYL-təkht, Irish: [ˈɡeːl̪ˠt̪ˠəxt̪ˠ]; plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish-language word for any primarily Irish-speaking region. In Ireland, the term Gaeltacht refers individually to any, or collectively to all, of the districts where the government recognises that the Irish language is the predominant vernacular, or language of the home.
Aragonese (/ ˌ ær ə ɡ ɒ ˈ n iː z /; aragonés [aɾaɣoˈnes] in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by about 12,000 people as of 2011, in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça.
- The Irish State and Irish Travellers
Travellers refer to themselves as Mincéirí or Pavees, or in Irish as na Lucht Siúil("the walking people").
There are numerous theories and oral histories surrounding the origins of Irish Travellers as a distinct group. Research has been complicated by the fact that the group appears to have no written records of its own,[page needed] with oral traditionthrough storytelling being the primary method through which the Traveller community disseminate its own history and culture. Deeper documentation of Shelta and the Travellers dates to the 1830s, but knowledge of Irish Travellers has been seen from the 1100s, as well as the 1500s-1800s. Many decrees against begging in England were directed at Travellers, passed by King Edward VI around 1551. One such decree was the "Acte for tynckers and pedlers". The identity of Irish Travellers resembles other itinerant communities, some aspects being self-employment, family networks, birth, marriage, and burial rituals, taboos and folklore. They worked with metal, and travelled throughout Ireland working on making items such as ornaments, jewellery and h...
Irish Travellers speak English and sometimes one of two dialects of Shelta—Gammon (or Gamin) and Irish Traveller Cant. Shelta has been dated back to the 18th century but may be older. Cant, which derives from Irish, is a combination of English and Shelta. Jean-Pierre Liégeois[fr] writes that the Irish Traveller Gammon vocabulary is derived from pre-13th-century Gaelic idioms with ten per cent Indian origin Romani language vocabulary. Since Shelta is a mixture of English and Irish grammar, the etymology is not straightforward. The language is made up mostly of Irish lexicon, being classified as a grammar-lexicon language with the grammar being English-based. Gaelic language expert Kuno Meyer and Romani language linguist John Sampson both asserted that Shelta existed as far back as the 13th century, 300 years before the first Romani populations arrived in Ireland or Britain.[unreliable source?][better source needed][discuss] Shelta is a secret language. Irish Travellers do not like to...
There was no specific state focus on Travellers prior to the creation of an independent Irish state in 1922. Issues with traditionally travelling groups came under loosely defined vagrancy laws, from when Ireland was part of the United Kingdom. In 1959 the 1959–63 government of Ireland established a "Commission on Itinerancy" in response to calls to deal with the "itinerant problem". This was made up of senior representatives of the Irish state, judges, Gardaí, religious organisations and numerous farming lobby groups such as Macra na Feirme. The commission had no Traveller representatives, and while attempts were made to consult Travellers, these were "bizarre" unannounced visits which resulted in little input into the report. The commission had the following terms of reference: 1. (1) to enquire into the problem arising from the presence in the country of itinerants in considerable numbers; 2. (2) to examine the economic, educational, health and social problems inherent in their w...
Irish Travellers have a much higher fertility rate than the general Irish population; the Central Statistics Officeof Ireland recorded in 2016 that 44.5% of Traveller women aged 40–49 had 5 or more children, compared to 4.2% of women overall in this age group.
Travellers have a distinctive approach to religion; the vast majority of them are practising Roman Catholics and they also pay particular attention to issues of healing.They have been known to follow a strict code of behaviour that dictates some of their moral beliefs and influences their actions.
In 2004, it was reported that Traveller children often grow up outside educational systems. Traveller children were reported in 2017 to leave education at a younger age than children in the settled community, with 28% leaving the education system by age 13.One of the causes identified is the historical marginalisation of the community within the educational system. The segregation of Traveller children from their settled peers led to worse outcomes in regards to undertaking state examinations, and levels of numeracy and literacy. The Irish Traveller Movement, a community advocacy group, promotes equal access to education for Traveller children.In the Census of Ireland 2016, 167 Travellers are enumerated as having a third level educational qualification, a rise from 89 in 2011. In December 2010, the Irish Equality Tribunal ruled in favour of a Traveller child in an anti-discrimination suit which covered the admission practices of CBS High School Clonmel in County Tipperary.In July 20...
Irish Travellers have a long history of bare-knuckle boxing. Toughness and the ability to fight are viewed as particularly important among Traveller men, and their involvement in boxing has extended to traditional amateur and professional boxing. Irish Traveller Francie Barrett represented Ireland at the 1996 Olympics, while Andy Lee fought for Ireland at the 2004 Olympics and later became the first Traveller to win a professional boxing world championship when he won the WBO middleweight title in 2014. Tyson Fury is of Irish Traveller heritage and defeated long-reigning Wladimir Klitschkoin 2015 to become the unified heavyweight world champion. In the Traveller community, bare-knuckle boxing is seen as a way to resolve disputes and uphold family honour, as shown in the 2011 documentary Knuckle. This can lead to injuries, notably "fight bite" where, when punching an opponent, a tooth may cut the hand and bacteria in the opponent's mouth may infect the wound. Such infections can lead...
The health of Irish Travellers is significantly poorer than that of the general population in Ireland. This is evidenced in a 2007 report published in Ireland, which states that over half of Travellers do not live past the age of 39 years.(By comparison, median life expectancy in Ireland is 81.5 years.) Another government report of 1987 found: In 2007, the Department of Health and Children in the Republic of Ireland, in conjunction with the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety in Northern Ireland, commissioned the University College Dublin's School of Public Health and Population Science to conduct a major cross-border study of Travellers' welfare. The study, including a detailed census of Traveller population and an examination of their health status, was expected to take up to three years to complete.The main results of the study were published in 2010. The birth rateof Irish Travellers has decreased since the 1990s, but they still have one of the highest birth...
Marriage among Travellers in their late teens is common.(p110) As of the Census of Ireland 2016 58.1% of Irish Travellers were under the age of 25, with 31.9% of this age group were married. As of 2016, 201 15–19-year-olds enumerated Irish Travellers identified themselves as married, down from 250 in 2011. Irish Travellers generally marry other Irish Travellers.(p156) Consanguineous marriage is common among Irish Travellers.(pp110–111)(p156)[a] According to Judith Okely in her anthropological study of Travellers in Britain in the 1970s stated that "there is no large time span between puberty and marriage". Okely wrote in 1983 that the typical marriage age for females was 16–17 and the typical marriage age for males was 18–19.(p153) Irish Travellers lived as cohabiters who "married at one time without religious or civil ceremony."(p258) Into the early 20th century about one-third of Irish Travellers were "married according to the law."(p246) According to Christopher Griffin, arranged...
Albert Naughton (1929–2013), English rugby league footballer of the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s (brother of Danny Naughton)MacNaughton is of Scottish origin and they are descended from the eighth century Pictish King Nechtan.See Norton (disambiguation)The surnames Nocton, Neactain, Nechtan, Naughten and Quinn come from the same name as Naughton
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Venetian or Venetan (łéngoa vèneta [ˈe̯eŋgoa ˈvɛneta] or vèneto), is a Romance language spoken as a native language by Venetians, almost four million people in the northeast of Italy, mostly in the Veneto region of Italy, where most of the five million inhabitants can understand it, centered in and around Venice, which carries the prestige dialect.
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