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A lingua franca (/ ˌ l ɪ ŋ ɡ w ə ˈ f r æ ŋ k ə / (); lit. 'Frankish tongue'; for plurals see § Usage notes), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native language or dialect ...
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Jan 11, 2020 · ‘Lingua Franca’: Film Review A trans Filipina in Brooklyn has troubles of both the romantic and immigration-status ilk in writer-director-star Isabel Sandoval's quietly involving drama.
- Dennis Harvey
- Pre-Columbian North America
- South America
- Pidgins and Creoles
- See Also
Akan can be regarded as the main lingua franca of Ghana, although mainly in the south.
During apartheid, the South African government aimed to establish Afrikaans as the primary lingua franca in South Africa and South African-controlled South-West Africa (now Namibia), although English was also in common use. Since the end of apartheid, English has been widely adopted as the sole lingua franca even though it was replaced with a new language. Many institutions that had names in English and Afrikaans have since dropped the Afrikaans names. Notable cases are South African Airways...
Amazigh or Tamazight is spoken in Maghreb. During the rise of Amazigh dynasties like the Almoravids and Almohads between 1040 and 1500, Berber served as both the vernacular and lingua franca of Northwest Africa. Today the language is less influential due to its suppression and marginalization, and the adoption of French and Arabic by the political regimes of the Berber world as working languages. However, Tuareg, a branch of the Berber languages, is still playing the role of a lingua franca t...
In the Middle East, from around 2600BCE to 1500BCE, forms of Akkadianwere the universally recognized language. It was used throughout the Akkadian empire as well as internationally as a diplomatic language – for example between Egypt and Babylon – well after the fall of the Akkadian empire itself and even while Aramaic was more common in Babylon.
Arabic, the native language of the Arabs, who originally came from the Arabian Peninsula, became the lingua franca of the Islamic (Arab) Empire (from CE 733 – 1492), which at its greatest extent was bordered by China and Northern India, Central Asia, Persia, Asia Minor, the Middle East, North Africa, France and Portugal. During the Islamic Golden Age (around CE 1200), Arabic was the language of science and diplomacy. Arabic loanwords are found in many languages, including English, Persian, Tu...
Aramaic was the native language of the Aramaeans and became the lingua franca of the Assyrian Empire and the western provinces of the Persian Empire, and was adopted by conquered peoples such as the Hebrews. A dialect of Old Aramaic developed into the literary language Syriac. The Syriacs, such as the Syriac-Aramaeans, Assyrians and Chaldean Christians, continued the use of Aramaic which ultimately evolved into the Neo-Aramaicdialects of the Middle East.
Between 9th and 11th century Old Bulgarian was the lingua franca of a great part of the predominantly Slavic states and populations in Southeast and Eastern Europe, in liturgy and church organization, culture, literature, education and diplomacy. It was the first national and also international Slavic literary language (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ). Bulgarian students of the apostles Saints Cyril and Methodius, who were expelled from Great Moravia in 886, including Clement o...
English is the current lingua franca of international business, education, science, technology, diplomacy, entertainment, radio, seafaring, and aviation. Since the end of World War I, it has gradually replaced French as the lingua franca of international diplomacy. The rise of English in diplomacy began in 1919, when the Treaty of Versailles was written in English as well as in French, the dominant language used in diplomacy until that time. The widespread use of English was further advanced...
French was the language of diplomacy from the 17th century until the mid-20th century, and is still a working language of some international institutions. In the international sporting world French is still the lingua franca of the International Olympic Committee, FIFA, and the FIA. French is still seen on documents ranging from passports to airmail letters. French is spoken by educated people in cosmopolitan cities of the Middle East and North Africa and remains so in the former French colon...
Classic Maya was commonly used as a written language in the Maya civilization, and may have also been a spoken lingua franca among Maya elites.
Chinook Jargonwas originally constructed from a great variety of Amerind words of the Pacific Northwest, arising as an intra-indigenous contact language in a region marked by divisive geography and intense linguistic diversity. The participating peoples came from a number of very distinct language families, speaking dozens of individual languages. After European contact, the Jargon also acquired English and French loans, as well as words brought by other European, Asian, and Polynesian groups...
Plains Sign Language, more directly translated as Hand Talk, but also as Prairie Sign Language, Plains Indian Sign Language, and First Nations Sign Language, was the primary lingua franca of the North American continent from the Sierra Nevadas to Denendeh, well past the Mississippi, and down across the northern states of Mexico. In the West, Hand Talk would give way to Chinook Jargon and perhaps formerly Plateau Sign Language. There remains very little documentation or research being doing on...
Portuguese and Spanish started to grow as lingua francas in the region in since the conquests of the 16th century. In the Case of Spanish this process was not even and as the Spanish used the structure of Inca Empire to consolidate their rule Quechua remained the lingua franca of large parts of what is now Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. Quechua importance as a language for trade and dealing with Spanish-approved indigenous authorities (curaca) made the language expand even after the Spanish conquest. It was not until the rebellion of Túpac Amaru II that the Spanish authorities changed to a policy of Hispanization that was continued by the republican states of Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia. Quechua also lost influence to Spanish as the commerce circuits grew to integrate other parts of the Spanish Empire where Quechua was unknown, for example in the Rio de la Plata.
Various pidgin languages have been used in many locations and times as a common trade speech. They can be based on English, French, Chinese, or indeed any other language. A pidgin is defined by its use as a lingua franca, between populations speaking other mother tongues. When a pidgin becomes a population's first language, then it is called a creole language.
Some languages are used as a lingua franca in more than one continent, most prominently the former colonial languages English, French, Portuguese and Spanish. The international language Esperantois now spoken by some people in all continents; in total following estimations there are about 2000 native speakers of Esperanto, some hundred thousand people speak it frequently and some million learned at least the base of Esperanto.
Matthee, Rudi (2009). "Was Safavid Iran an Empire?". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. Brill. 53 (1–2): 233–265. doi:10.1163/002249910X12573963244449.
Elefen – “lingua franca nova” o “lfn” – es un lingua simple, desiniada per comunica internasional. Sua vocabulo es fundida en catalan, espaniol, franses, italian e portuges. La gramatica es multe reduida, simil a la creoles romanica. La lingua es speleda como lo sona, usante 22 leteras de la alfabeta latina.
Jun 15, 2020 · A lingua franca (pronounced LING-wa FRAN-ka) is a language or mixture of languages used as a medium of communication by people whose native languages are different. It is from the Italian, "language" + "Frankish" and also known as a trade language, contact language, international language, and global language.
Jul 28, 2020 · LINGUA FRANCA – Ang kahulugan ng Lingua Franca ay tumutukoy sa isang diyalekto na ginagamit ng dalawa o higit pang mga tao na may magkaibang pangunahing wika. Sa Pilipinas, ang Tagalog ay isang halimbawa ng Lingua Franca dahil may iba’t-ibang diyalekto na matatagpuan sa Pilipinas.