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A lingua franca (/ ˌ l ɪ ŋ ɡ w ə ˈ f r æ ŋ k ə / (); lit. 'Frankish tongue'; for plurals see § Usage notes), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native language or dialect ...
A lingua franca is any language used for communication...
The term lingua franca derives from Mediterranean Lingua...
- Usage notes
The term is well established in its naturalization to...
Franca was the Italian word for Frankish. Its usage in the term lingua franca came from its meaning in Arabic. That word came into use before the Crusades, when Europeans used to be called "Franks" or Faranji in Arabic. The term lingua franca is first recorded in English in 1678. Examples
- Globalization and ELF
- Features of spoken ELF communication
- "Neutrality" of ELF
- ELF and the native speaker
- Attitude and motivation
English as a lingua franca is the use of the English language "as a global means of inter-community communication" and can be understood as "any use of English among speakers of different first languages for whom English is the communicative medium of choice and often the only option". ELF is "defined functionally by its use in intercultural communication rather than formally by its reference to native-speaker norms" whereas English as a second or foreign language aims at meeting native speaker
Major technological advances in the 21st century have enabled instant global communication, thus breaking the barriers of space and time between different locations on the planet. The world has turned into an interconnected global system, which requires a shared means of communication. English fulfills the need for a global lingua franca for it has spread to large areas of the world due to colonisation and the widespread teaching of English as a foreign language. Because of the use of English as
The way English is used as a lingua franca is heavily dependent on the specific situation of use. Generally speaking, ELF interactions concentrate on function rather than form. In other words, communicative efficiency is more important than correctness. As a consequence, ELF interactions are very often hybrid. Speakers accommodate to each other's cultural backgrounds and may also use code-switching into other languages that they know. Based on the Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English an
Although some researchers hold that English as a lingua franca is a neutral and culture-free tool, others hold that it carries the culture and language of its speakers. Recent linguistic discussions by ELF experts treat the interactants' cultural and linguistic background as a factor influencing language performance. For Hülmbauer, for instance, “it seems likely that the ELF users develop their own markers of identity.” In this view, ELF is multicultural rather than culture-free.
ELF is used most often between non-native speakers of English but this fact does not mean that native speakers are excluded from ELF communication. However, very often they form a minority of the interlocutors. In ELF interactions, the importance lies on communication strategies other than nativeness, which can lead to communicative situations where those English native speakers who are not familiar with ELF and/or intercultural communication are at a disadvantage because they do not know how to
Several attitude studies on the topic of ELF have already been conducted. One overarching factor seems to be a discrepancy between perceptions on the role of ELF in everyday interactions all over the globe on the one hand, and the dominance of as well as reliance on native speaker norms on the other hand. Breiteneder argues that learners of English as a Foreign Language often have an integrative motivation for learning and using English since they wish to identify with the culture and values of
- Contents and contributors
- Sokal Affair
- Final issue
Lingua Franca was an American magazine about intellectual and literary life in academia.
The magazine was founded in 1990 by Jeffrey Kittay, an editor and professor of French literature at Yale University. Kittay, as the New York Times reported, "saw a niche for vivid reporting about the academic world and especially about its many personal feuds and intellectual controversies." Kittay told the newspaper, "I was an academic who was very, very hungry for information about what made my profession so alive, where people became passionate about abstract ideas." Describing the magazine's
In a 2002 retrospective article, Andrew Delbanco wrote about the magazine that "It ran stories about everything, from a historians’ quarrel over the efficacy of the 1960s student movement, to a dispute among anthropologists over whether cannibalism ever existed, to the fight between the Harvard biologists E.O. Wilson and Richard Lewontin over the extent to which genes control human behavior, to the question of whether dissertation advisers should sleep with their students." Contributors ...
Jeffrey Kittay served as the magazine's editor-in-chief. For its first year, the editor was Peter Edidin. From 1991 to 1994, Lingua Franca was co-edited by Judith Shulevitz and Margaret Talbot. In late 1994, Alexander Star became the editor, joined by Emily Eakin. The New York Times critic A.O. Scott served as a senior editor, as did New Yorker features editor Daniel Zalewski. Historian and journalist Rick Perlstein, the author of Nixonland, began his journalism career as an intern there, later
Lingua Franca was where the Sokal Affair — a parody of academic practices and post-structuralist language — was first revealed; Lingua Franca editors later produced a book of selected papers on the subject, The Sokal Hoax, published by the University of Nebraska Press.
The magazine halted publication during the 2001 economic downturn, after a financial backer withdrew support. New Yorker editor David Remnick told The New York Times, "That is terrible. I really enjoyed it — I always found something fascinating to read in that magazine, and not infrequently something that I wish we had had for The New Yorker." The company behind the magazine declared bankruptcy in April 2002. Later in 2002, editor Alexander Star assembled an anthology: Quick Studies: The ...
- United States
- Jeffrey Kittay
Língua franca ou língua de contato é a língua que um grupo multilíngue de seres humanos intencionalmente adota ou desenvolve para que todos consigam sistematicamente comunicar-se uns com os outros.
Lingua franca ska inte förväxlas med lingua franca nova, som är ett konstgjort planspråk. Exempel på lingua franca. Bland olika nutida lingua franca i världen kan nämnas engelska, kinesiska, franska, spanska och ryska. Genom historia har det funnits olika lingua franca i olika regioner.
Lingua franca (bahasa Latin yang artinya adalah "bahasa bangsa Franka") adalah sebuah istilah linguistik yang artinya adalah "bahasa pengantar" atau "bahasa pergaulan" di suatu tempat di mana terdapat penutur bahasa yang berbeda-beda. Ayatrohaedi menerjemahkan istilah ini dengan istilah basantara, dari kata "basa" atau "bahasa" dan "antara".
Lingua franca (výslovnost lingva franka) je jakýkoliv jazyk šířeji využívaný nad rámec rodilých mluvčích. Status lingvy franky je de facto obvykle „udělen“ lidmi jazyku, který nejvíce ovlivňuje dobu, ve které žijí.