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  1. Language and the euro - Wikipedia › wiki › Linguistic_issues

    In the English-language version of European Union legislation, the unit euro, without an s, is used for both singular and plural. However, the plural euros is also in everyday use. [22] Many style guides such as those from the Associated Press [23] and The Economist [24] specify the plural euros , and major dictionaries describe it as the most ...

  2. Talk:Language and the euro - Wikipedia › wiki › Talk:Linguistic_issues

    The article isn't really about linguistic issues with the euro, but simply describes the usage of the word euro in a number of languages. Therefore, I would rename the page to something more descriptive, like "Linguistic usage concerning the euro", or so.

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    Are there any known unsolved problems in linguistics?

    Where does the influence of Euro English come from?

    How are linguistics and Ethnology in translation problems?

    What is euro in English?

  4. Euro English - Wikipedia › wiki › Euro_English

    Euro English or European English, less commonly known as EU English and EU Speak, is a pidgin dialect of English based on common mistranslations and the technical jargon of the European Union and the native languages of its non-native English speaking population. It is mostly used among EU staff, expatriates from EU countries, young ...

    Standard English
    Euro English
    Tourist, used attributively
    Touristic is not commonly used to ...
    Last October I had the opportunity to ...
    Last October I had the possibility to ...
    Used in Romance languages but comes from ...
    That Mercedes is my dentist's car.
    That Mercedes is the car of my dentist.
    Possessive in Romance languages. For ...
    The English adjective actual has ...
  5. Languages of the European Union - Wikipedia › wiki › Languages_in_the_European
    • Official EU Languages
    • Regional, Minority and Other Languages
    • Knowledge
    • Working Languages
    • Policy
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    As of 1 July 2013[update], the official languages of the European Union, as stipulated in the latest amendment of Regulation No 1 determining the languages to be used by the European Economic Communityof 1958, are: The number of member states exceeds the number of official languages, as several national languages are shared by two or more countries in the EU. Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, and Swedish are all official languages at the national level in multiple countries (see table above). In addition, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Hungarian, Italian, Slovak, and Sloveneare official languages in multiple EU countries at the regional level. Furthermore, not all national languages have been accorded the status of official EU languages. These include Luxembourgish, an official language of Luxembourg since 1984, and Turkish, an official language of Cyprus. All languages of the EU are also working languages. Documents which a member state or a person subject to the jurisdiction of a m...

    According to the Euromosaic study, some regional or minority languages spoken within the EU do not have official recognition at EU level. Some of them may have some official status within the member state and count many more speakers than some of the lesser-used official languages. The official languages of EU are in bold. In the list, language varieties classified as dialects of an official language by member countries are not included. However, many of these varieties may be viewed as separate languages: for instance, Scots (the Germanic language descended from Old English, not the Celtic language known as Scottish Gaelic) and several Romance languages spoken in Spain, Portugal, France and Italy, such as Mirandese, Lombard, Ligurian, Piedmontese, Venetian, Corsican, Neapolitan and Sicilian.

    The five most spoken languages in the EU are English (44%), German (36%), French (29%), Italian (18%) and Spanish(17%). At 20% of the total number of speakers, German is the most widely spoken native language, followed by French, Italian and Spanish. The knowledge of foreign languages varies considerably in the specific countries, as the table below shows. The most spoken second or foreign languages in the EU are English, French, German, Spanish, and Russian. In the table, boxes coloured light blue mean that the language is an official language of the country, while the main language spoken in the country is coloured dark blue. 1 This does not refer to the total population of the countries.2 40% of those who speak French are native speakers, for a total of 85%.3 Includes about 30% native speakers4 Includes more than 30% native speakers 56% of citizens in the EU member states are able to hold a conversation in one language apart from their native language. This is nine points higher...

    European Commission

    While documents for and communication with citizens are in every official EU language as a right, day-to-day work in the European Commission is based around its three working languages: English, French, and German. Of these, English and French are used the most often. The use of English vs. French depends a lot on the unit or directorate. Only a few of the Commissioners use a language other than English or French as their working language. German is rarely used as a true working language in t...

    European Parliament

    The European Parliament translates its proceedings into all official languages so that fellow MEPs can understand them better than if they had the delayed translation. Committee meetings also often default to the language most understood by those attending instead of listening to the translation.

    Court of Justice

    The working language of the Court of Justice of the European Union is French. The judges deliberate in French, pleadings and written legal submissions are translated into French, and the judgment is drafted in French.The Advocates-General, by contrast, may work and draft their opinions in any official language, as they do not take part in any deliberations. These opinions are then translated into French for the benefit of the judges and their deliberations.

    The European Union's legal powers on legislative acts and other initiatives on language policy are based on the provisions of the Treaties of the European Union. In the EU, language policy is the responsibility of member states, and the European Union does not have a common "language policy". Based on the principle of subsidiarity, European Union institutions play a supporting role in this field, promoting cooperation between the member states and promoting the European dimension in the member states' language policies, particularly through the teaching and dissemination of the languages of the member states (Article 149.2). The rules governing the languages of the institutions of the Community shall, without prejudice to the provisions contained in the Statute of the Court of Justice, be determined by the council, acting unanimously (Article 290). All languages, in which[word missing?]was originally drawn up or was translated due to enlargement, are legally equally authentic. Every...

    Sabine Fiedler (2010). "Approaches to fair linguistic communication". European Journal of Language Policy. 2 (1): 1–21. doi:10.3828/ejlp.2010.2. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
    Gazzola, Michele (4 October 2006). "Managing multilingualism in the European Union: language policy evaluation for the European Parliament". Language Policy. 5 (4): 395–419. doi:10.1007/s10993-006-...
    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle and Stefan Wolff. 2003. Minority Languages in Europe: Frameworks, Status, Prospects. Palgrave. ISBN 1-4039-0396-4
    Nic Craith, Máiréad. 2005. Europe and the Politics of Language: Citizens, Migrants and Outsiders. Palgrave. ISBN 1-4039-1833-3
  6. List of unsolved problems in linguistics - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_unsolved_problems
    • Concepts
    • Philosophy of Language
    • Historical Linguistics and The Evolution of Language
    • Psycholinguistics
    • Sociolinguistics
    • Computational Linguistics
    • Lexicology and Lexicography
    • Translation
    • Other
    Is there a universal definition of word?
    Is there a universal definition of sentence?
    Are there any universal grammatical categories?
    Is syntactic structure constructed of part-whole relations of syntactic constituents or is it built of an asymmetrical dependency relationbetween words?
    What is language?
    How do intension, comprehension, reference, intention and intentionality, extension, linguistic relativity, context, ambiguity, polysemy, idiolect, dialect, among other major linguistics concepts,...

    The evolution of language

    1. How and when did language originate? 1.1. How and when did different modes of language (spoken, signed, written) originate? 1.2. Were Homo sapiens the first humans to use language? What about other species in the genus Homo? 1.3. Is language continuous or discontinuous with earlier forms of communication? Did language appear suddenly or gradually?

    Language classification

    1. What language families are valid? 1.1. Are any macro-familiesvalid? 2. Can any of the approximately 100 unclassified languages be classified?Or does our limited knowledge of them prevent that? 3. Can we decipher any of the extant undeciphered writing systems? 4. Language isolateshave no demonstrated relatives, and essentially form language families on their own. Can any of the approximately 159 language isolates be shown to be related to other languages? 5. Can we use the comparative metho...

    How to deal with variation in language (including idiolects, dialects, sociolects, jargons, argots, etc.) to achieve effective and successful communication between individuals and between groups, i...
    What are the best ways to quantitatively and qualitatively compare language use between individuals and between groups?
    How does time (and the semantic changethat it brings) and physical age influence language use?
    What causes linguistic features to begin to undergo language change at some points in time and in some dialects but not others? (This is known as the "actuation problem".)
    Is perfect computational word-sense disambiguation attainable by using software? If yes, how and why? If no, why? (This presupposes the solution to the unsolved problems in the other areas of lingu...
    Is accurate computational word-sense inductionfeasible? If yes, how and why? If not, why?
    What makes a good dictionary?
    To what extent are dictionaries reliable in terms of their supposed universality when spoken language is constantly changing (semantic change, semantic extension, semantic compression, etc.)?
    What are good practices to avoid circular definitions in dictionaries? Is it possible to eliminate them at all, given the vagueness, polysemy, etc. in all languages?
    What are the best ways to ensure efficient communication without misunderstandings: in everyday life and in educational, scientific and philosophical discussions? Is total terminology standardizati...
    Is there an objective gauge for the quality of translation?
    What are the best strategies for quality translation: fidelity or transparency, dynamic or formal equivalence, etc.?
    What are the best ways to deal with untranslatability, e.g. lexical gaps?
    How to best deal with translation loss and its accumulation, e.g. when translating from a translation (see Chinese whispers)?
    Is there an objective way to determine which are the most difficult languages?
    To what extent are conlangs usable and useful as used as natural languages by humans?[citation needed]
  7. Bulgaria and the euro - Wikipedia › wiki › Bulgaria_and_the_euro

    Bulgaria committed to switching its currency, the lev, to the euro upon its joining the European Union in 2007, as stated in its EU accession treaty.The transition will occur once the country meets all the euro convergence criteria; it currently meets four of the five criteria, the exception being its membership for at least two years of the EU's official exchange rate mechanism ().

  8. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Main_Page

    Local embassy – For Wikipedia-related communication in languages other than English. Reference desk – Serving as virtual librarians, Wikipedia volunteers tackle your questions on a wide range of subjects. Site news – Announcements, updates, articles and press releases on Wikipedia and the Wikimedia Foundation.

  9. A language regime is the language policy of an organisation, and it can be defined as a set of official and working languages, along with rules concerning the use of such languages for the communication within and outside the organisation examined (Gazzola, 2014a). In this article,

  10. 10 Most Spoken Languages in Europe - Tandem Language Exchange App › 10-most-spoken-languages-europe

    The German language is the most widely-understood language after the English language as it is a popular second or third language in many European countries. 3. French. Coming in third after Russian and German is French, with the number of native speakers at about 80 million. It is the official language of France, and a co-official language of ...

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