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  1. Language and the euro - Wikipedia › wiki › Language_and_the_euro

    In the English-language version of European Union legislation, the unit euro, without an s, is used for both singular and plural. However, the plural euros is also in everyday use. [22] Many style guides such as those from the Associated Press [23] and The Economist [24] specify the plural euros , and major dictionaries describe it as the most ...

  2. Talk:Language and the euro - Wikipedia › wiki › Talk:Linguistic_issues

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Talk:Linguistic issues concerning the euro) This is the talk page for discussing improvements to the Language and the euro article. This is not a forum for general discussion of the article's subject.

  3. Talk:Linguistic issues concerning the euro/Archive 1 - Wikipedia › wiki › Talk:Linguistic_issues

    The issue with it in terms of this word is that (1) lots of people in Ireland don't use the s-less plural at all and (2) no English-speaking country outside of Ireland uses the s-less plural at all. All of this constitutes linguistic issues concerning the euro and the article is just fine as it stands.

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  5. Euro - Wikipedia › wiki › Euro

    Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used (as opposed to the less common Greek or Cyrillic) and Arabic numerals (other text is used on national sides in national languages, but other text on the common side is avoided). For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only ...

  6. Template:Euro topics - Wikipedia › wiki › Template:Euro_topics

    Euro-related topics; Topics: Eurozone · Currencies related to the euro · European Monetary System · European Currency Unit · European Exchange Rate Mechanism · Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union · Stability and Growth Pact · Introduction of the euro · Euro coins · Euro banknotes · Euro sign · Linguistic issues concerning the euro

  7. List of unsolved problems in linguistics - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_unsolved_problems
    • Concepts
    • Philosophy of Language
    • Historical Linguistics and The Evolution of Language
    • Psycholinguistics
    • Sociolinguistics
    • Computational Linguistics
    • Lexicology and Lexicography
    • Translation
    • Other
    Is there a universal definition of word?
    Is there a universal definition of sentence?
    Are there any universal grammatical categories?
    Is syntactic structure constructed of part-whole relations of syntactic constituents or is it built of an asymmetrical dependency relationbetween words?
    What is language?
    How do intension, comprehension, reference, intention and intentionality, extension, linguistic relativity, context, ambiguity, polysemy, idiolect, dialect, among other major linguistics concepts,...

    The evolution of language

    1. How and when did language originate? 1.1. How and when did different modes of language (spoken, signed, written) originate? 1.2. Were Homo sapiens the first humans to use language? What about other species in the genus Homo? 1.3. Is language continuous or discontinuous with earlier forms of communication? Did language appear suddenly or gradually?

    Language classification

    1. What language families are valid? 1.1. Are any macro-familiesvalid? 2. Can any of the approximately 100 unclassified languages be classified?Or does our limited knowledge of them prevent that? 3. Can we decipher any of the extant undeciphered writing systems? 4. Language isolateshave no demonstrated relatives, and essentially form language families on their own. Can any of the approximately 159 language isolates be shown to be related to other languages? 5. Can we use the comparative metho...

    How to deal with variation in language (including idiolects, dialects, sociolects, jargons, argots, etc.) to achieve effective and successful communication between individuals and between groups, i...
    What are the best ways to quantitatively and qualitatively compare language use between individuals and between groups?
    How does time (and the semantic changethat it brings) and physical age influence language use?
    What causes linguistic features to begin to undergo language change at some points in time and in some dialects but not others? (This is known as the "actuation problem".)
    Is perfect computational word-sense disambiguation attainable by using software? If yes, how and why? If no, why? (This presupposes the solution to the unsolved problems in the other areas of lingu...
    Is accurate computational word-sense inductionfeasible? If yes, how and why? If not, why?
    What makes a good dictionary?
    To what extent are dictionaries reliable in terms of their supposed universality when spoken language is constantly changing (semantic change, semantic extension, semantic compression, etc.)?
    What are good practices to avoid circular definitions in dictionaries? Is it possible to eliminate them at all, given the vagueness, polysemy, etc. in all languages?
    What are the best ways to ensure efficient communication without misunderstandings: in everyday life and in educational, scientific and philosophical discussions? Is total terminology standardizati...
    Is there an objective gauge for the quality of translation?
    What are the best strategies for quality translation: fidelity or transparency, dynamic or formal equivalence, etc.?
    What are the best ways to deal with untranslatability, e.g. lexical gaps?
    How to best deal with translation loss and its accumulation, e.g. when translating from a translation (see Chinese whispers)?
    Is there an objective way to determine which are the most difficult languages?
    To what extent are conlangs usable and useful as used as natural languages by humans?[citation needed]
  8. Linguistics - Wikipedia › wiki › Linguistics
    • Major Subdisciplines
    • Language Varieties
    • Structures
    • Approaches
    • Methodology
    • History
    • Areas of Research
    • Bibliography
    • External Links

    Historical linguistics

    Historical linguistics is the study of language change, particularly with regards to a specific language or a group of languages. Western trends in historical linguistics date back to roughly the late 18th century, when the discipline grew out of philology (the study of ancient texts and antiquedocuments). Historical linguistics emerged as one of the first few sub-disciplines in the field, and was most widely practiced during the late 19th century. Despite a shift in focus in the twentieth ce...

    Syntax and morphology

    Syntax and morphology are branches of linguistics concerned with the order and structure of meaningful linguistic units such as words and morphemes. Syntacticians study the rules and constraints that govern how speakers of a language can organize words into sentences. Morphologists study similar rules for the order of morphemes—sub-word units such as prefixes and suffixes—and how they may be combined to form words. While words, along with clitics, are generally accepted as being the smallest...

    Semantics and pragmatics

    Semantics and pragmatics are branches of linguistics concerned with meaning. These subfields have traditionally been divided according to aspects of meaning thought to arise from the grammar versus linguistic and social context. Semantics in this conception is concerned with grammatical and lexical meanings and pragmatics concerned with meaning in context. The framework of formal semantics studies the denotations of sentences and the way they are composed from the meanings of their constituen...

    Languages exist on a wide continuum of conventionalization with blurry divisions between concepts such as dialects and languages. Languages can undergo internal changes which lead to the development of subvarieties such as linguistic registers, accents, and dialects. Similarly, languages can undergo changes caused by contact with speakers of other languages, and new language varieties may be born from these contact situations through the process of language genesis.

    Linguistic structures are pairings of meaning and form. Any particular pairing of meaning and form is a Saussurean sign. For instance, the meaning "cat" is represented worldwide with a wide variety of different sound patterns (in oral languages), movements of the hands and face (in sign languages), and written symbols (in written languages). Linguistic patterns have proven their importance for the knowledge engineeringfield especially with the ever-increasing amount of available data. Linguists focusing on structure attempt to understand the rules regarding language use that native speakers know (not always consciously). All linguistic structures can be broken down into component parts that are combined according to (sub)conscious rules, over multiple levels of analysis. For instance, consider the structure of the word "tenth" on two different levels of analysis. On the level of internal word structure (known as morphology), the word "tenth" is made up of one linguistic form indicat...


    The fundamental principle of humanistic linguistics is that language is an invention created by people. A semiotic tradition of linguistic research considers language a sign system which arises from the interaction of meaning and form. The organisation of linguistic levels is considered computational. Linguistics is essentially seen as relating to social and cultural studies because different languages are shaped in social interaction by the speech community. Frameworks representing the human...


    Approaches such as cognitive linguistics and generative grammar study linguistic cognition with a view towards uncovering the biological underpinnings of language. In Generative Grammar, these underpinning are understood as including innate domain-specificgrammatical knowledge. Thus, one of the central concerns of the approach is to discover what aspects of linguistic knowledge are innate and which are not. Cognitive Linguistics, in contrast, rejects the notion of innate grammar, and studies...

    Linguistics is primarily descriptive. Linguists describe and explain features of language without making subjective judgments on whether a particular feature or usage is "good" or "bad". This is analogous to practice in other sciences: a zoologiststudies the animal kingdom without making subjective judgments on whether a particular species is "better" or "worse" than another. Prescription, on the other hand, is an attempt to promote particular linguistic usages over others, often favouring a particular dialect or "acrolect". This may have the aim of establishing a linguistic standard, which can aid communication over large geographical areas. It may also, however, be an attempt by speakers of one language or dialect to exert influence over speakers of other languages or dialects (see Linguistic imperialism). An extreme version of prescriptivism can be found among censors, who attempt to eradicate words and structures that they consider to be destructive to society. Prescription, how...

    The earliest activities in the description of language have been attributed to the 6th-century-BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī. Today, modern-day theories on grammaremploy many of the principles that were laid down back then.


    Sociolinguisticsis the study of how language is shaped by social factors. This sub-discipline focuses on the synchronic approach of linguistics, and looks at how a language in general, or a set of languages, display variation and varieties at a given point in time. The study of language variation and the different varieties of language through dialects, registers, and idiolects can be tackled through a study of style, as well as through analysis of discourse. Sociolinguists research both styl...

    Developmental linguistics

    Developmental linguistics is the study of the development of linguistic ability in individuals, particularly the acquisition of languagein childhood. Some of the questions that developmental linguistics looks into is how children acquire different languages, how adults can acquire a second language, and what the process of language acquisition is.


    Neurolinguistics is the study of the structures in the human brain that underlie grammar and communication. Researchers are drawn to the field from a variety of backgrounds, bringing along a variety of experimental techniques as well as widely varying theoretical perspectives. Much work in neurolinguistics is informed by models in psycholinguistics and theoretical linguistics, and is focused on investigating how the brain can implement the processes that theoretical and psycholinguistics prop...

    Akmajian, Adrian; Demers, Richard; Farmer, Ann; Harnish, Robert (2010). Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-51370-8.

  9. Download - Wikipedia › wiki › Copyright_aspects_of

    In computer networks, download means to receive data from a remote system, typically a server such as a web server, an FTP server, an email server, or other similar system. This contrasts with uploading, where data is sent to a remote server. A download is a file offered for downloading or that has been downloaded, or the process of receiving ...

  10. Linguistic issues concerning the euro - Infogalactic: the ... › info › Linguistic_issues
    • Summary
    • Languages of Part of The European Union
    • Other Languages
    • External Links
    1 The language is an official language in a eurozonemember state, meaning there are official spellings in EU documents.
    2English, Turkish and Swedish are marked by the euro sign because they are official languages of eurozone members (English being an official language in Ireland and Malta, Turkish in Cyprus, and Sw...
    3 Partitive singular. Most languages use a plural or immutable singular with numbers, but Estonian and Finnish use the partitive case.
    4Welsh follows numerals with the singular form of the noun.


    In Asturian, there has been a controversy about the spelling of the word. The official academic dictionary uses the spelling euru, respecting the Asturian tendency to write nouns with a final -u. However, considering that the international use is euro and that there is a tendency in Asturian to write some short forms with a final -o (like euro from Europa), other linguists, like Ramón d'Andrés, defend the spelling euro.


    Bulgarian uses Cyrillic. The current design of euro banknotes, except for the "new" €5, €10 and upcoming €20 banknotes, has the word euro written in Latin and Greek alphabets. The 2013 design of the € 5 banknote introduced Cyrillic, adopting the spelling ЕВРО, as described below. When Bulgaria will issue Euro coins, if the Greek model is followed, the alternative spelling will go on the national (obverse) side. In popular Bulgarian usage the currency is referred to as евро [ˈɛvro] and, less o...


    In Catalan the official plural is the same as its regular plural euros. In Eastern Catalan, the official pronunciation of "euro" is [ˈɛwɾu] ([ˈɛwɾo] in Majorcan), while in Western Catalan (which includes Valencian) is [ˈewɾo]. For the cent, the word cèntim (pronounced: [ˈsɛntim], plural cèntims) is used, since historically this term has been used as the hundredth part of a currency unit. The fraction of the peseta was also called cèntim, but it was withdrawn from circulation decades ago.


    In Albanian, the euro is referred to as "euro". This is the same for Albanian in Kosovo, Macedonia and rest of the Balkans. Some Kosovo Albanian speakers however, pronounce euro like Germans; 'oiro'/'oi', due to heavily migration. It is derived from the Albanian word for Europe, "Europa", "Europë" and also "Evropa"/"Evropë". All variants are official in Albanian, however Albania uses Euro, Europa or Europe whilst other Albanian dialects such as in Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia ofte...


    In Arabic, the euro is usually referred to as يورو [ˈjuːro, ˈjuːru], which is an adaptation of the English pronunciation of the currency's name. Another naming is اورو [ˈʔoːro], which is an approximation of the French pronunciation [øˈʁo]. In most cases this term is used both for the singular and the plural form, although the plurals يوروات /juːroˈwaːt/ and يوروهات /juːroˈhaːt/ are sometimes encountered. The name for Europe in Arabic is أوروبا /ʔo(ː)ˈrobba, -ˈroppa/. Because loanwords are not...


    The Armenian word for euro is Եվրո, pronounced [evˈro] in exactly the same way as the Greek. It is derived from the Armenian word for Europe, Եվրոպա, which, however, is pronounced [evroˈpɑː], as stress in Armenian usually falls on the final syllable. Cent in Armenian is pronounced [ˈt͡sɛnt] (ցենտ). The plural of euro, in accordance with the formation of plurals in Armenian, is Եվրոներ [evroˈner]. The plural of cent, however, is ցենտի, pronounced [t͡sɛnˈtiː].

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