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  1. The Mamluk Sultanate ( Arabic: سلطنة المماليك, romanized : Salṭanat al-Mamālīk ), also known as Mamluk Egypt or the Mamluk Empire, was a state that ruled Egypt, the Levant and the Hejaz (western Arabia) from the mid-13th to early 16th centuries. It was ruled by a military caste of mamluks (manumitted slave soldiers) headed by the sultan.

  2. Overview. The first Mamluks served the Abbasids caliphs in ninth-century Baghdad. The Abbasids recruited them mainly from Turkic non-Muslims captured in areas north of the Black Sea, the steppes of present-day Southwestern Russia and the Caucasus. The mamluks were often sold into slavery by impoverished steppe families or kidnapped by slave-traders.

  3. With the Ottoman victories over the Mamluks in 1516–17, Egypt and Syria reverted to the status of provinces within an empire. Although the Mamluk sultanate was destroyed, the Mamluks remained intact as a class in Egypt and continued to exercise considerable influence in the state. As had been the case during the Mamluk dynasty, the Mamluk elite continued to be replenished by purchases from slave markets.

  4. Jul 3, 2019 · Mameluke or Mamluk Chief. The Mamluks were a class of warrior-enslaved people, mostly of Turkic or Caucasian ethnicity, who served between the 9th and 19th century in the Islamic world. Despite their origins as enslaved people, the Mamluks often had higher social standing than free-born people.

  5. Ayyubid sultans depended on slave (Arabic: mamluk, literally “owned,” or slave) soldiers for military organization, yet mamluks of Qipchaq Turkic origin eventually overthrew the last independent Ayyubid sultan in Egypt, Turan Shah (r. 1249–50), and established their own rule. Their unusual political system did not rely entirely on family succession to the throne—slaves were also recruited into the governing class.

  6. Jun 23, 2022 · This Mamluk corps, known as the Mamluks de la République (or ‘Mamelukes of the Imperial Guard’), was composed of the combined units of ex-Mamluks and Syrian Janissaries. According to some sources, many of these men were recruited from the 2,000 slaves that Napoleon bought (and later released) from a Syrian merchant.

  7. The Mamluks (lit. slaves) were a military class that ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1517 and Syria (including Palestine) from 1260 to 1516. Under the Mamluk sultans in Egypt and Syria, local Jews often suffered at the hands of government officials and Muslim zealots, although at times the sultan and his representatives were also a restraining influence on fanatical mobs or leaders.

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