All oxyacids have the acidic hydrogen bound to an oxygen atom, so bond strength (length) is not a factor, as it is with binary nonmetal hydrides. Rather, the electronegativity of the central atom and the number of oxygen atoms determine oxyacid acidity. For oxyacids with the same central atom, acid strength increases with the number of oxygen ...
Ionic bonding is common between pairs of atoms, where one of the pair is a metal of low electronegativity (such as sodium) and the second a nonmetal of high electronegativity (such as chlorine). A chlorine atom has seven electrons in its third and outer electron shell, the first and second shells being filled with two and eight electrons ...
Metal toxicity or metal poisoning is the toxic effect of certain metals in certain forms and doses on life.Some metals are toxic when they form poisonous soluble compounds. . Certain metals have no biological role, i.e. are not essential minerals, or are toxic when in a certain for
Hydrogen chloride is a diatomic molecule, consisting of a hydrogen atom H and a chlorine atom Cl connected by a polar covalent bond.The chlorine atom is much more electronegative than the hydrogen atom, which makes this bond polar.
Hydrobromic acid is a strong acid formed by dissolving the diatomic molecule hydrogen bromide (HBr) in water. "Constant boiling" hydrobromic acid is an aqueous solution that distills at 124.3 °C (255.7 °F) and contains 47.6% HBr by mass, which is 8.77 mol/L. Hydrobromic acid has a pK a of −9, making it a stronger acid than hydrochloric acid, but not as strong as hydroiodic acid.
The most reactive kind of nonmetal element is a halogen (e.g., fluorine (F) or chlorine (Cl)). Such an atom has the following electron configuration: s 2 p 5; this requires only one additional valence electron to form a closed shell.
Selenium is the first nonmetal in period 4, with properties similar to sulfur. Selenium is quite rare in pure form in nature, mostly being found in minerals such as pyrite, and even then it is quite rare. Selenium is necessary for humans in trace amounts, but is toxic in larger quantities. Selenium is a chalcogen.