North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the Earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third-largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe.
History of North America encompasses the past developments of people populating the continent of North America.While it was widely believed that continent first became a human habitat when people migrated across the Bering Sea 40,000 to 17,000 years ago, recent discoveries may have pushed those estimates back at least another 90,000 years.
- Surface and climate
North America is the third largest continent, and is also a portion of the second largest supercontinent if North and South America are combined into the Americas and Africa, Europe, and Asia are considered to be part of one supercontinent called Afro-Eurasia. With an estimated population of 580 million and an area of 24,709,000 km2, the northernmost of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere is bounded by the Pacific Ocean on the west; the Atlantic Ocean on the east; the Caribbean Sea, Atl
Seventy percent of North America is underlain by the Laurentia craton, which is exposed as the Canadian Shield in much of central and eastern Canada around the Hudson Bay, and as far south as the U.S. states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The continental crust started to form 4 billion years ago, and six of the microcontinents collided to form the craton about 2 Ga. This core has been enlarged by plate tectonics, most notably between 1.8 and 1.65 Ga when a piece currently stretching from
North America may be divided into at least five major physiographic regions: Canadian Shield This is a geologically stable area of rock dating between 2.5 and 4 Gya that occupies most of the northeastern quadrant, including Greenland.
The Great Plains is the broad expanse of prairie and steppe which lies east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. The narrow plains in the Mexican coast and the savannas of the Mississippi are analogous to, respectively, the Patagonian steppes and the pampas of the Piranha, Paraguay, and Rio de la Plata. Thus the Appalachians and the mountain chains of Brazil are regarded as creating similar interruptions to the plains community. North America extends to within 10° of latitude
The Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges run along the entire Pacific Coast, acting as a barrier to the humid winds that sweep in from the ocean. The rising topography forces this air upwards, causing moisture to condense and fall in the form of rain on the western slopes of the mountains, with some areas receiving more than 70 inches of rainfall per year. As a result, the air has lost much of its moisture and becomes hot and dry when it reaches the areas east of the coastal mountain ranges
North America is home to many native mammal species. Several species of deer, including elk, caribou, moose, mule deer, and the abundant white-tailed deer are found throughout various regions, along with the bison and musk ox in the central and northern plains, respectively. Three species of bear, several subspecies of wolf, and various other carnivores such as raccoons, skunks, and cats including cougars and lynxes are widely distributed. The family Mustelidae is well represented, including bad
North America has a population of around 371 million and is the 4th most populous continent in the world. Hundreds of millions of years ago, North America was part of a larger ancient supercontinent named Laurasia. A few million years ago, a new land bridge arose and connected North America to South America.
- Around 24.71 million km2
- 528,720,588 (2008)
- $20.3 trillion (201moo3)
- 21.4/km² (55/sq mi)
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- Pre-Columbian Era
- Arrival of Europeans
- Colonial Era
- Age of Revolutions
- Expansion Era
- World Wars Era
Before contact with Europeans the natives of North America were divided into many different communities, from small bands of a few families to large empires. They lived in several culture areas, which roughly correspond to geographic and biological zones of North America and give a good indication of the main occupation of the people who lived there (e.g. the Bison hunters of the Great Plains, or the farmers of Mesoamerica). Native groups can also be classified by their language family. It is important to note that peoples with similar languages did not always share the same material culture, nor were they always allies. Scientists believe that the Inuit people of the high Arctic came to North America much later than other native groups, as evidenced by the disappearance of Dorset culture artifacts from the archaeological record, and their replacement by the Thule people. During the thousands of years of native inhabitation on the continent, cultures changed and shifted. Archaeologi...
There was limited contact between North American peoples and the outside world before 1492. Several theoretical contacts have been proposed, but the earliest physical evidence comes to us from the Norse or Vikings. Norse captain Leif Erikson is believed to have reached the Island of Newfoundland circa 1000 AD. They named their new discovery Vinland. The only Norse site yet discovered in North America is at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland and Labrador. The Norse colonieswere later abandoned....
Initially, European activity consisted mostly of trade and exploration. Eventually Europeans began to establish settlements. The three principal colonial powers were Spain, England, and France, although eventually even small powers like the Netherlands and Swedenreceived minor holdings on the continent. Settlement by the Spanish started the European colonization of the Americas, involving genocide of the native Indians. They gained control of most of the largest islands in the Caribbean and c...
By 1663 the French crown had taken over control of New France from the fur-trading companies, and the English charter coloniesgave way to more metropolitan control. This ushered in a new era of more formalized colonialism in North America. Rivalry between the European powers created a series of wars on the North American landmass that would have great impact on the development of the colonies. Territory often changed hands multiple times. Peace was not achieved until French forces in North America were vanquished at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec City, and France ceded most of her claims outside of the Caribbean. Viceroyalty of New Spain was the name of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in Asia, North Americaand its peripheries from 1535 to 1821.
The coming of the American Revolution had a great impact across the continent. Most importantly it directly led to the creation of the United States of America. However, the associated American Revolutionary War was an important war that touched all corners of the region. The flight of the United Empire Loyalists led to the creation of English Canada as a separate community. Meanwhile, Spain's hold on Mexico was weakening. Independence was declared in 1810 by Miguel Hidalgo, starting the Mexican War of Independence. In 1813, José María Morelos and the Congress of Anáhuac signed the Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America, the first legal document where the separation of the New Spain with respect to Spain is proclaimed. Spain finally recognized Mexico's independence in 1821.
From the time of independence of the United States, that country expanded rapidly to the west, acquiring the massive Louisiana territory in 1803. An attempt at northern expansion was blocked by Britain during the War of 1812. At the same time, British settlement in Canada increased. US expansion was complicated by the division between "free" and "slave" states, which led to the Missouri Compromise 1820. Likewise, Canada faced a division between French and English communities that led to the outbreak of civil strife in 1837. Mexico faced constant political tensions between liberals and conservatives, as well as the rebellion of the English-speaking region of Tejas, which declared itself the Republic of Texas 1836. In 1845 Texas joined the United States, which would later lead to the Mexican–American War. As a result of conflict with Mexico, the United States made further territorial gains in Californiaand the Southwest. In Mexico, the entire era was dominated by the dictatorship of P...
The Great War
As part of the British Empire, Canada immediately was at war in 1914. Canadian troops bore the brunt of several major battles during the early stages of the war including the use of poison gas attacks at Ypres. Newfoundland troops suffered a devastating loss on July 1, 1916, the First day on the Somme. Losses became grave, and the government eventually brought in conscription, despite the fact this was against the wishes of the majority of French Canadians. In the ensuing Conscription Crisis...
The 1920s brought an age of great prosperity in the United States, and to a lesser degree Canada. But the Wall Street Crash of 1929 combined with drought ushered in a period of economic hardship in the United States and Canada. From 1936 to 1949, this was a popular uprising against the anti-Catholic Mexican government of the time, set off specifically by the anti-clerical provisions of the Mexican Constitution of 1917.
The Second World War
Once again Canada found itself at war before its neighbours, however even Canadian contributions were slight before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The entry of the United States into the war helped to tip the balance in favour of the allies. Two Mexican tankers, transporting oil to the United States, were attacked and sunk by the Germans in the Gulf of Mexicowaters, in 1942. The incident happened in spite of Mexico's neutrality at that time. This led Mexico to declare war to the Axis na...Bennett, Norma V. (1997), Pioneer Legacy, ISBN 0-9683026-0-2Kane, Katie Nits Make Lice: Drogheda, Sand Creek, and the Poetics of Colonial Extermination Cultural Critique, No. 42 (Spring, 1999), pp. 81–103 doi:10.2307/1354592Churchill, Ward A Little Matter of Genocide 1997 City Lights Books ISBN 0-87286-323-9
Mwachirengedwe ndi North America ambiri m'madera ndi subregions. Zinthu monga chikhalidwe, chuma, ndi malo m'madera. Economic m'madera zinthu popangidwa ndi malonda blocs, monga North America Trade mgwirizano bloc ndi Central America Trade mgwirizano. Zinenero ndi chikhalidwe, dziko Africa akhoza kugawidwa mmagawo Anglo-America ndi Latin America. Anglo-America zikuphatikizapo ambiri kumpoto kwa America, Belize, ndi Caribbean zilumba ndi Chingelezi anthu (kuti kum'mwera dziko mabungwe monga Louisiana ndi Quebec, ndi Francophone mu zikuchokera). Kum'mwera North America wapangidwa ndi awiri m'madera. Awa Central America ndi ku Caribbean. The kumpoto kwa Africa kupitiriza anazindikira m'madera ena. Mosiyana wamba tanthawuzo la "North America", zomwe amanena yense, mawu akuti "North America" amagwiritsidwanso ntchito ponena Canada, Mexico, ndi United States, ndi Greenland. [11 ] Mawu akuti kumpoto America amatanthauza kumpoto ambiri m'mayiko ndi m'madera North America, Canada, ndi Unit...
North America ndi lalikulu kwambiri Africa chimene chimaposa cha Arctic Circle, ndipo dziko. Greenland, pamodzi ndi Canada chishango, ndi Titafika ndi pafupifupi kutentha kuyambira pakati pa 10 ° C 20 ° C madigiri, koma chapakati Greenland wapangidwa ndi waukulu kwambiri ayezi pepala. Izi Titafika chimachokera mu Canada, koma malire limatha pafupi ndi miyala kumapiri (komabe lili Alaska) ndipo pamapeto a ku Canada Shield, pafupi ndi Great Lakes. Climate kumadzulo kwa Cascades akunenedwa kuzizira nyengo pafupifupi mainchesi 20 mvula. Climate mu nyanja California limafotokoza kuti Mediterranean, ndi pafupifupi kutentha m'mizinda ngati San Francisco kuyambira pakati pa 57 ndi 70 m'kupita kwa chaka. Anatambasula ku East Coast kum'mawa kwa North Dakota, ndipo anatambasula mpaka Kansas, ndi America-chinyezi nyengo osonyeza zovuta nyengo, ndi yambiri ya pachaka mvula, ndi malo monga New York City pafupifupi mainchesi 50. [ 58] Kuyambira pa kum'mwera kwa dziko la America-chinyezi nyengo ndi...
Wamphamvu zinenero North America ndi m'Chingelezi, m'Chisipanishi ndi French. Denmark ndi maganizo Greenland limodzi Chigirinilandi, ndi Dutch chimalankhulidwa limodzi zinenero mu Dutch Caribbean. Mawu akuti Anglo-America ntchito za anglophone mayiko a ku America: ndicho Canada (kumene English ndi French ndi omasuliridwa boma) ndi United States, komanso nthawi zina Belize ndi mbali ya kumadera otentha, makamaka Commonwealth Caribbean. Latin America amatanthauza ena a ku America (zambiri kum'mwera kwa United States) kumene Romance m'zinenero, opangidwa kuchokera ku Latin, a Spain ndi Portugal (koma French kulankhula mayiko Sichifukwa anaphatikizapo) amachuluka: lina Union wa Central America ( koma nthawi Belize), mbali ya Caribbean (osati Dutch-, English-, kapena French olankhula m'madera), Mexico, ndipo ambiri South America (kupatula Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana (FR), ndi Falkland Islands ( UK)). Chifulenchi wakhala mbiri anachita mbali yofunika kwambiri mu North America ndipo ts...
Canada ndi United States nafenso zikhalidwe ndi miyambo monga mayiko anali kale British ankawalamulira. A wamba chikhalidwe ndi chuma msika zachitika pakati pa mitundu iwiri chifukwa choti chuma ndi mbiri anzathu. Greenland magawo ena chikhalidwe kugwirizana ndi anthu ameneŵa a Canada koma ankaona Masewerera a Nordic ndi cholimba Denmark ubale chifukwa zaka za kulamulira ndi Denmark. Amalankhula Chisipanishi North America amauza wamba akale monga kale Spanish ankawalamulira. Mu Mexico ndi ku Central America kumene chitukuko ngati Maya anayamba, zamakolo anthu kusunga miyambo kudutsa masiku malire. Central America ndi ku Spain olankhula Caribbean mitundu mbiri anali ndi zambiri zofanana chifukwa malo moyandikana. Kumpoto Mexico, makamaka m'mizinda ya Monterrey, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, ndi Mexicali, ali kwambiri kutengera chikhalidwe ndi moyo wa United States. A takambiranazi mizinda Monterrey wakhala amatengedwa kwambiri Chimerika mzinda North America. Immigration ku United States nd...
The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America.It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territories, 326 Indian reservations, and some minor possessions.
The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts. The Mustang was designed in April 1940 by a design team headed by James Kindelberger  of North American Aviation (NAA) in response to a requirement of the British ...
(Redirected from List of airlines of North America) This is a list of airlines of the Americas, in operation. List of airlines Anguilla. Anguilla Air Services ...
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