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  1. Dec 09, 2020 · Here are the ten countries that make up Northern Europe: Norway Sweden Denmark Finland Iceland United Kingdom Ireland Lithuania Latvia Estonia Scandinavia Map of Scandinavia including Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Iceland. Norway Norway is characterized by its rugged coastline, mountainous terrain, deep fjords, and numerous islands.

  2. Apr 18, 2021 · There are 9 countries that could be considered part of Central Europe: Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Switzerland. However, there is no clear consensus on whether or not all of these countries should be considered part of Central Europe.

    • The Holy Roman Empire
    • The Protestant Reformation
    • Early Reformers
    • The Habsburg Empire
    • Habsburg Emperors During The Renaissance
    • Habsburg Austria
    • Germany
    • The Hanseatic League
    • Switzerland
    • Calvin Stops For A Visit

    The Holy Roman Empirewas a vast state that extended from France in the west, to Denmark in the north, and to Poland and Hungary in the east. In northern Italy, all territories except Venice were part of the empire. Although the emperor ruled most of Europe, he was actually a mere figure-head. He had no real power in France, southern Italy, Denmark,...

    The Holy Roman Empire and its religious strongholds in Europebegan to unravel after the period known as the Babylonian Captivity and the Great Schism in the Roman Catholic Church (1348–1417; see "Crisis in the papacy" in Chapter 1). During this time there were as many as three popes—one in Rome, a second in France, and a third in Pisa, Italy. By 15...

    The most influential religious reformers were Meister (Johannes) Eckhart, John Wycliffe, Martin Luther, Huldrych Zwingli, and John Calvin. Their efforts started the movement that became known as the Protestant Reformation (the term "Protestant" came from "protest"). In addition, the invention of "moveable type" and the mass production of the Gutenb...

    The history of Europe during the Renaissance and Reformation was dominated by the Habsburg family. The Habsburgs were based in Austria, which comprised the eastern portion of central Europe, and they also held lands in Burgundy, areas along the eastern border of France. Because all Holy Roman emperors at this time were Habsburgs, the family also co...

    Below are listed the Habsburg emperors and the years they ruled, from 1438 through 1657. Frederick IIIAlbert's successor was the German king Frederick III (1415–1493). Although Frederick had numerous problems during his reign, he made the house of Habsburg a powerful force in European politics. The son of Duke Ernest of Austria, Frederick inherited...

    Austria appeared on the map of Europe as a sovereign, or independent, state only after World War I(1914–18). At the beginning of the sixteenth century, Austria belonged to the Habsburgs, who called themselves the house of Austria. The state covered the eastern part of central Europe—the regions that are now Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Styria, Car...

    By the fifteenth century Germany consisted of more than three hundred separate states that were crowded into four main regions: Brandenburg in the north, along the Baltic Sea; Hesse in the west, on the southern border of the Netherlands; Saxony in the central area, between Hesse and Silesia; and Bavaria in the south between Austria and the Tyrol.

    The Hanseatic League was a trading network formed by German towns after 1100. A major reason for the league's development was the lack of a powerful national government that could support extensive commerce and provide safe passage for merchants when they traveled to foreign lands. As a result, companies of merchants made agreements that guaranteed...

    Switzerland became part of the Holy Roman Empire in 1032. In the thirteenth century, it was placed under the Habsburgs, whose harsh domination resulted in the rebellion of several cities. In 1291 an "eternal alliance" was formed between three cantons (provinces) of Switzerland: Schwyz, Uri, and Unterwalden. This agreement was the first step towardf...

    One evening in June 1536, John Calvin stopped in Geneva, Switzerland, to spend the night. He fully intended to continue on his journey the following day. But the local Protestant preacher, Guillaume Farel, had another idea. He convinced Calvin that it was his duty to God to remain where he was most needed. The task was to expel the remnants of Cath...

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  4. Mar 27, 2020 · The countries considered to comprise northern Europe are: Iceland, Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Faroe Islands, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Iceland, the United Kingdom, Ireland and the Faroe Islands are separate island nations that are located on the western side of northern Europe.

  5. Mar 25, 2020 · The Central Europe Programme lists the Czech Republic, Austria, Germany, Italy, Poland, Hungary, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia and Ukraine as Central European countries. There is some disagreement, however, as to which countries should be classified as part of Central Europe.

  6. Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, [3] [4] [5] based on a common historical, social and cultural identity. [a] The Thirty Years' War between Catholicism and Protestantism was a significant shaping process in the history of Central Europe. The concept of “Central Europe” appeared in the 19th century.

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