The Republic of Novgorod was famous for its high level of culture in relation to other Russian duchies like Suzdal. A great majority of the most important Eastern artwork of the period came from this city. Citizens of Novgorod were producing large quantities of art, more specifically, religious icons.
The city serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast. The city lies along the Volkhov River just downstream from its outflow from Lake Ilmen and is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg. UNESCO recognized Novgorod as a World Heritage Site in 1992.
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- Administrative and Municipal Status
- City Layout and Divisions
- Main Sights
Originally the name was just Novgorod (“Newtown”), but to distinguish it from the other, older and well-known Novgorod (Veliky Novgorod) to the west, the city was commonly called “Novgorod of the Lower lands”, or “Lower Newtown”. This land was named "lower” (nizhniy (нижний)), even though it is actually higher in altitude than Veliky Novgorod, because it is situated downstream of other Russian cities such as Moscow, Vladimir and Murom.
Seat of medieval princes
The city traces its origin from a small Russian wooden hillfort that was founded by Grand Duke Yuri II in 1221 at the confluence of two of the most important rivers in his principality, the Volga and Oka rivers. It marked the eastern extreme of East Slavic settlement until the end of the medieval period, with Russian expansion eastward delayed until the capture of Kazan in 1552. Its independent existence of the medieval fort was threatened by the continuous Mordvin attacks against it; the maj...
Strongest fortress of the Grand Duchy of Moscow
After the city's incorporation into the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1392, the local princes took the name Shuysky and settled in Moscow, where they were prominent at the court and briefly ascended the throne in the person of Vasily IV. After being burnt by the powerful Crimean Tatar chief Edigu in 1408, Nizhny Novgorod was restored and regarded by the Muscovites primarily as a great stronghold in their wars against the Tatars of Kazan. The enormous red-brick Kremlin, one of the strongest and ear...
Nizhny Novgorod is the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one resort settlement and twelve rural localities, incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Nizhny Novgorod—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Nizhny Novgorod is incorporated as Nizhny Novgorod Urban Okrug.In December 2011, Marat Safin was elected to the Russian Parliament as a member of Vladimir Putin's United RussiaParty, representing Nizhny Novgorod.
Nizhny Novgorod is divided by the Oka River into two distinct parts. The Upper City (Russian: Нагорная часть, Nagornaya chast, Mountainous part) is located on the hilly eastern (right) bank of the Oka. It includes three of the eight city districts into which the city is administratively divided: 1. █ Nizhegorodsky (the Kremlin, the historical and administrative center of the city); 2. █ Prioksky 3. █ Sovetsky The Lower City (Russian: Заречная часть, Zarechnaya chast, Over river part) occupies the low (western) side of the Oka, and includes five city districts: 1. █ Avtozavodsky (built around the Gorky Automobile Plant); 2. █ Kanavinsky (the site of the Nizhny Novgorod Fair and the location of the main train station); 3. █ Leninsky. 4. █ Moskovsky (home of the Sokol Aircraft Plant and its airfield); 5. █ Sormovsky (where Krasnoye Sormovo and the Volga Shipyardare located); All of today's lower city was annexed by Nizhny Novgorod in 1929–1931.Population: 1,250,619 (2010 Census); 1,311,252 (2002 Census); 1,438,133 (1989 Census).Births (2009): 12,934Deaths (2009): 20,987
The area operates in what is referred to in international standards as Moscow Standard Time (MSK), which is 3 hours ahead of UTC, or UTC+3. Daylight saving timeis no longer observed.
In 1834 the first weather station was opened in Nizhny Novgorod. A century later it transformed into Gorky Hydrometeorological service, then since 1978 it is known as the Higher Volga hydrometeorology and natural habitat control department. The climate in the region is continental, specifically humid continental (Dfb), and it is similar to the climate in Moscow, although colder in winter, which lasts from late November until late March with a permanent snow cover. Average temperatures range f...
Nizhny Novgorod is one of the centers of the IT industry in Russia. It ranks among the leading Russian cities in terms of the quantity of software R&D providers. Intel has a big software research and development center with more than 500 engineers in the city, as well as a major datacenter. In Nizhny Novgorod there are also a number of offshore outsourcing software developers, including Bell Integrator, Itseez, Tecom, Luximax Systems Ltd., MERA, RealEast Networks, Auriga, SoftDrom, and Teleca...
Engineering is the leading industry of Nizhny Novgorod's economy with transportation – the auto industry, shipbuilding, diesel engines, aircraft manufacture and machine tools – predominating; the auto industry being the leading sector (50%). Some of the largest plants include: 1. JSC "Gorky Automobile Plant" – personal cars, trucks, armored personnel carriers, and other autos; 2. JSC "Krasnoye Sormovo" – river and sea ships, submarines; 3. JSC "Sokol" – airplanes, jets; 4. PJSC "Nizhny Novgor...
Local public transportation
Public transportation within the city is provided by a trams, marshrutkas (routed taxis), buses, and trolleybuses. Electric and diesel commuter trains run to suburbs in several directions.
The Gorky Railway, a Russian Railways department which operates some 5,700 km (3,500 mi) of rail lines throughout the Middle Volga region and 1,200 km (750 mi) in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, is headquartered in Nizhny Novgorod. Since 1862, there has been a railway connection between Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow. Overnight trains provide access to Nizhny Novgorod from Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Kazan, Yaroslavl and others. А fast train transports passengers between Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow in less...
Nizhny Novgorod is an important center of Volga cargo and passenger shipping. During summer, cruise vessels operate between Nizhny Novgorod, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Astrakhan. In 2006 a small number of Meteor-class hydrofoilsresumed operations on the Volga river. In August 2019, river navigation within the region was resumed. The hydrofoil Valdai began to sail along the routes Nizhny Novgorod - Gorodets and Nizhny Novgorod - Makaryevo.
Much of the city downtown is built in the Russian Revival and Stalin Empire styles. The dominating feature of the city skyline is the grand Kremlin(1500–1511), with its red-brick towers. After Bolshevik devastation, the only ancient edifice left within the Kremlin walls is the tent-like Archangel Cathedral (1624–1631), first built in stone in the 13th century. There are more than 600 unique historic, architectural, and cultural monuments in the city. There are about 200 municipal and regional art and cultural institutions within Nizhny Novgorod. Among these institutions there are eight theaters, five concert halls, 97 libraries (with branches), 17 movie theaters (including five for children), 25 institutions of children's optional education, eight museums (16 including branches), and seven parks.
Nizhny Novgorod is home to the following educational facilities: 1. N. I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod 2. Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University 3. Research Medical University of Volga region 4. Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering 5. Nizhny Novgorod State Linguistic University 6. Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University 7. Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy 8. Volgo-Vyatsky Region Civil Service Academy There are also twenty research institutes located in the city.
Nizhny Novgorod is the center of the television and radio broadcasting on the region and the Volga Federal District. There are local TV stations, the Internet and print media.
- 460 km² (180 sq mi)
- 200 m (700 ft)
- Administrative divisions
Novgorod Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Veliky Novgorod. Some of the oldest Russian cities, including Veliky Novgorod and Staraya Russa, are located in the oblast. The historic monuments of Veliky Novgorod and surroundings have been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Population: 634,111.
Novgorod Oblast borders with Leningrad Oblast in the north and in the northwest, Vologda Oblast in the east, Tver Oblast in the southeast and in the south, and Pskov Oblast in the southwest. The western part is a lowland around Lake Ilmen, while the eastern part is a highland. The highest point is Mount Ryzhokha in the Valdai Hills. In the center of the oblast is Lake Ilmen, one of the largest lakes in Central Russia. The major tributaries of Lake Ilmen are the Msta, which originates in the east
Novgorod is one of the oldest centers of Russian civilization. It lied on the historical trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, which followed the Volkhov upstream to Lake Ilmen and then followed the course of the Lovat before eventually reaching the Dnieper River. Novgorod is indicated in the chronicles as the site where Rurik settled and founded the Rurik Dynasty in 862. Subsequently, Rurik's successor, Oleg, moved the capital to Kiev, but Novgorod continued to play an important role u
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Novgorod CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee. Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament. The Charter of Novgorod Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of No
As of 2014, industry was responsible for about 40% of the GNP of the oblast. The main industrial enterprises in the oblast are four chemical plants, all located in Veliky Novgorod and specializing mostly in production of fertilizers, a metallurgical plant, also in Veliky Novgorod
The main specialization of agriculture in the oblast is cattle breeding with meat and milk production. In 2011, approximately 90% of the farms held cattle, and 79% of all agricultural production in the oblast were meat, milk, and eggs. A number of large-scale farms are keeping pi
Novgorod appeared as a site on one of the most important Middle-Age trade routes. The importance of waterways has considerably diminished since those days, but Lake Ilmen, the Volkhov River, and lower courses of main tributaries of lake Ilmen—the Lovat, the Msta, the ...
The oblast is administratively divided into three cities and towns under the oblast's jurisdiction and twenty-one districts. Another seven towns have the status of the towns of district significance.
- 55,300 km² (21,400 sq mi)
- Construction and career
- Myths and reality
A scale model of Novgorod as she appeared after 1875 Class overview Preceded by Petr Veliky Succeeded by Vitse-admiral Popov Built 1871–1874 In service 1874–1903 Completed 1 Scrapped 1 History Russian Empire Name Novgorod Namesake Novgorod Builder New Admiralty Shipyard, Saint Petersburg Cost 2,830,000 rubles Laid down 29 December 1871[Note 1] Launched 2 June 1873 Completed 1874 Decommissioned 1 May 1903 Reclassified As a coast-defense ironclad, 13 February 1892 Stricken 3 July 1903...
In 1868, the Scottish shipbuilder John Elder published an article that advocated that widening the beam of a ship would reduce the area that needed to be protected and allow it to carry thicker armour and heavier, more powerful guns in comparison to a ship with a narrower beam, as was the typical practice of the day. In addition such a ship would have a shallower draught and only a moderate increase in power would be required to match the speed of a normal ship. Sir Edward Reed, then Director of
While under construction, Popov's design was modified by the addition of wood and copper sheathing to reduce biofouling, which increased Novgorod's diameter to 101 feet. She had a maximum draught of 13 feet 6 inches and displaced 2,491 long tons at normal load. Freeboard was only 18 inches and the deck curved upwards to the gun barbette in the center. The ship had an unarmoured superstructure forward of the barbette that housed some of the crew's quarters. Despite initial concerns about her sea-
The Treaty of Paris that ended the Crimean War of 1854–56 limited the Imperial Russian Navy to only six 800 long tons corvettes in the Black Sea, so the royal shipyard in Sevastopol was leased to the Russian Steam Navigation and Trading Company. This meant that any ironclads built for Black Sea service would have to be built in Saint Petersburg, disassembled, and then shipped to a port there for reassembly. The long-dormant facility at Nikolaev was chosen and the navy began ordering ...
In his book, The World's Worst Warships, naval historian Antony Preston characterised the popovkas like this
The Cathedral of St. Sophia in Veliky Novgorod is the cathedral church of the Archbishop of Novgorod and the mother church of the Novgorodian Eparchy.
The 38-metre-high, five-domed, stone cathedral was built by Vladimir of Novgorod between 1045 and 1050 to replace an oaken cathedral also built by Bishop Joachim the Korsunian in the late tenth century. It was consecrated by Bishop Luka Zhidiata on September 14, in 1050 or 1052, the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross. While it is commonly known as St. Sophia's, it is not named for any of the female saints of that name; rather, the name comes from the Greek for wisdom, and thus Novgorod's cathe
Novgorod's St. Sophia was the first Slavic church in which local divergences from Byzantine pattern were made so evident. With its austere walls, narrow windows, the church is redolent of Romanesque architecture of Western Europe, rather than of Greek churches built at that time. The Novgorod cathedral also differs strikingly from its namesake and contemporary in Kiev. As one art historian put it, the Kiev cathedral is a bride, whereas the Novgorod cathedral is a warrior. Its decoration is minim
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For the inactive club, see FC Nizhny Novgorod (2007). FC Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ФК «Нижний Новгород») is a Russian football club from Nizhny Novgorod, founded in 2015. It will make its debut in the Russian Premier League in the 2021–22 season.
From Russian Но́вгород (Nóvgorod, “Newtown”).
1. IPA(key): /ˈnɒvɡəɹɒd/, /ˈnɔːvɡəɹət/
Novgorod 1. An oblast in northwestern Russia. 2. A city, the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast, Russia. 3. A former principality and medieval state located in modern Russia.
Novgorod m 1. Novgorod (an oblast of Russia) 2. Novgorod (a city, the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast, Russia)
1. Novgorod in Kartotéka Novočeského lexikálního archivu 2. Novgorod in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989
Novgorod f 1. Novgorod (an oblast of Russia) 2. Novgorod (a city, the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast, Russia)
Novgorod n (genitive Novgorods) 1. Novgorod (an oblast of Russia) 2. Novgorod (a city, the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast, Russia)
The Novgorod (Russian: Новгород) was an Imperial Russian warship. It was one of the most unusual warships ever constructed, and still survives in popular naval myth, often described as the "ugliest warship ever built".