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  1. Objective-C - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Objective_C

    Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk -style messaging to the C programming language. It was the main programming language supported by Apple for macOS, iOS, and their respective application programming interfaces (APIs), Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, until the introduction of Swift in 2014.

    • 1984; 37 years ago
    • Tom Love and Brad Cox
    • 2.0
    • C
  2. Category:Objective-C - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Category:Objective-C

    Pages in category "Objective-C" The following 3 pages are in this category, out of 3 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().

  3. Objective-C - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Objective-C

    Objective-C is a strict superset of C, meaning that any code that can be written in C can be used in Objective-C programs without being rewritten. However, it adds some features of its own that cannot be used in a traditional C program.

  4. Wikipedia

    www.wikipedia.org

    Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation.

  5. Objective - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Objectives

    Objective may refer to: Objective (optics), an element in a camera or microscope. The Objective, a 2008 science fiction horror film. Objective pronoun, a personal pronoun that is used as a grammatical object. Objective Productions, a British television production company. Goal, a result or possible outcome that a person or a system desires.

  6. Smalltalk - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Smalltalk

    Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed reflective programming language. Smalltalk was created as the language underpinning the "new world" of computing exemplified by "human–computer symbiosis". It was designed and created in part for educational use, specifically for constructionist learning, at the Learning Research Group (LRG ...

  7. C (programming language) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › C-programming
    • Overview
    • History
    • Syntax
    • "Hello, World" Example
    • Data Types
    • Memory Management
    • Libraries
    • Language Tools
    • Uses
    • Related Languages

    Like most procedural languages in the ALGOL tradition, C has facilities for structured programming and allows lexical variable scope and recursion. Its static type system prevents unintended operations. In C, all executable code is contained within subroutines (also called "functions", though not strictly in the sense of functional programming). Function parameters are always passed by value. Pass-by-reference is simulated in C by explicitly passing pointer values. C program source text is free-format, using the semicolon as a statement terminator and curly braces for grouping blocks of statements. The C language also exhibits the following characteristics: 1. The language has a small, fixed number of keywords, including a full set of control flow primitives: if/else, for, do/while, while, and switch. User-defined names are not distinguished from keywords by any kind of sigil. 2. It has a large number of arithmetic, bitwise, and logic operators: +, +=, ++, &, ||, etc. 3. More than o...

    Early developments

    The origin of C is closely tied to the development of the Unix operating system, originally implemented in assembly language on a PDP-7 by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson, incorporating several ideas from colleagues. Eventually, they decided to port the operating system to a PDP-11. The original PDP-11 version of Unix was also developed in assembly language. Thompson desired a programming language to make utilities for the new platform. At first, he tried to make a Fortran compiler, but soon...

    K&R C

    In 1978, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie published the first edition of The C Programming Language. This book, known to C programmers as K&R, served for many years as an informal specification of the language. The version of C that it describes is commonly referred to as "K&R C". The second edition of the book covers the later ANSI Cstandard, described below. K&Rintroduced several language features: 1. Standard I/O library 2. long intdata type 3. unsigned intdata type 4. Compound assignmen...

    ANSI C and ISO C

    During the late 1970s and 1980s, versions of C were implemented for a wide variety of mainframe computers, minicomputers, and microcomputers, including the IBM PC, as its popularity began to increase significantly. In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) formed a committee, X3J11, to establish a standard specification of C. X3J11 based the C standard on the Unix implementation; however, the non-portable portion of the Unix C library was handed off to the IEEE working group 1...

    C has a formal grammar specified by the C standard. Line endings are generally not significant in C; however, line boundaries do have significance during the preprocessing phase. Comments may appear either between the delimiters /* and */, or (since C99) following // until the end of the line. Comments delimited by /* and */ do not nest, and these sequences of characters are not interpreted as comment delimiters if they appear inside stringor character literals. C source files contain declarations and function definitions. Function definitions, in turn, contain declarations and statements. Declarations either define new types using keywords such as struct, union, and enum, or assign types to and perhaps reserve storage for new variables, usually by writing the type followed by the variable name. Keywords such as char and int specify built-in types. Sections of code are enclosed in braces ({ and }, sometimes called "curly brackets") to limit the scope of declarations and to act as a...

    The "hello, world" example, which appeared in the first edition of K&R, has become the model for an introductory program in most programming textbooks. The program prints "hello, world" to the standard output, which is usually a terminal or screen display. The original version was: A standard-conforming "hello, world" program is:[a] The first line of the program contains a preprocessing directive, indicated by #include. This causes the compiler to replace that line with the entire text of the stdio.h standard header, which contains declarations for standard input and output functions such as printf and scanf. The angle brackets surrounding stdio.h indicate that stdio.his located using a search strategy that prefers headers provided with the compiler to other headers having the same name, as opposed to double quotes which typically include local or project-specific header files. The next line indicates that a function named main is being defined. The main function serves a special pu...

    The type system in C is static and weakly typed, which makes it similar to the type system of ALGOL descendants such as Pascal. There are built-in types for integers of various sizes, both signed and unsigned, floating-point numbers, and enumerated types (enum). Integer type char is often used for single-byte characters. C99 added a boolean datatype. There are also derived types including arrays, pointers, records (struct), and unions (union). C is often used in low-level systems programming where escapes from the type system may be necessary. The compiler attempts to ensure type correctness of most expressions, but the programmer can override the checks in various ways, either by using a type castto explicitly convert a value from one type to another, or by using pointers or unions to reinterpret the underlying bits of a data object in some other way. Some find C's declaration syntax unintuitive, particularly for function pointers. (Ritchie's idea was to declare identifiers in cont...

    One of the most important functions of a programming language is to provide facilities for managing memoryand the objects that are stored in memory. C provides three distinct ways to allocate memory for objects: 1. Static memory allocation: space for the object is provided in the binary at compile-time; these objects have an extent(or lifetime) as long as the binary which contains them is loaded into memory. 2. Automatic memory allocation: temporary objects can be stored on the stack, and this space is automatically freed and reusable after the block in which they are declared is exited. 3. Dynamic memory allocation: blocks of memory of arbitrary size can be requested at run-time using library functions such as malloc from a region of memory called the heap; these blocks persist until subsequently freed for reuse by calling the library function realloc or free These three approaches are appropriate in different situations and have various trade-offs. For example, static memory alloc...

    The C programming language uses libraries as its primary method of extension. In C, a library is a set of functions contained within a single "archive" file. Each library typically has a header file, which contains the prototypes of the functions contained within the library that may be used by a program, and declarations of special data types and macro symbols used with these functions. In order for a program to use a library, it must include the library's header file, and the library must be linked with the program, which in many cases requires compiler flags (e.g., -lm, shorthand for "link the math library"). The most common C library is the C standard library, which is specified by the ISO and ANSI C standards and comes with every C implementation (implementations which target limited environments such as embedded systems may provide only a subset of the standard library). This library supports stream input and output, memory allocation, mathematics, character strings, and time...

    A number of tools have been developed to help C programmers find and fix statements with undefined behavior or possibly erroneous expressions, with greater rigor than that provided by the compiler. The tool lintwas the first such, leading to many others. Automated source code checking and auditing are beneficial in any language, and for C many such tools exist, such as Lint. A common practice is to use Lint to detect questionable code when a program is first written. Once a program passes Lint, it is then compiled using the C compiler. Also, many compilers can optionally warn about syntactically valid constructs that are likely to actually be errors. MISRA Cis a proprietary set of guidelines to avoid such questionable code, developed for embedded systems. There are also compilers, libraries, and operating system level mechanisms for performing actions that are not a standard part of C, such as bounds checking for arrays, detection of buffer overflow, serialization, dynamic memory tr...

    C is widely used for systems programming in implementing operating systems and embedded system applications, because C code, when written for portability, can be used for most purposes, yet when needed, system-specific code can be used to access specific hardware addresses and to perform type punning to match externally imposed interface requirements, with a low run-timedemand on system resources. C can be used for website programming using the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) as a "gateway" for information between the Web application, the server, and the browser. C is often chosen over interpreted languagesbecause of its speed, stability, and near-universal availability. A consequence of C's wide availability and efficiency is that compilers, libraries and interpreters of other programming languages are often implemented in C. For example, the reference implementations of Python, Perl, and PHPare written in C. C enables programmers to create efficient implementations of algorithms an...

    C has both directly and indirectly influenced many later languages such as C#, D, Go, Java, JavaScript, Limbo, LPC, Perl, PHP, Python, and Unix's C shell. The most pervasive influence has been syntactical; all of the languages mentioned combine the statement and (more or less recognizably) expression syntax of Cwith type systems, data models, and/or large-scale program structures that differ from those of C, sometimes radically. Several C or near-C interpreters exist, including Ch and CINT, which can also be used for scripting. When object-oriented languages became popular, C++ and Objective-C were two different extensions of C that provided object-oriented capabilities. Both languages were originally implemented as source-to-source compilers; source code was translated into C, and then compiled with a C compiler. The C++ programming language was devised by Bjarne Stroustrup as an approach to providing object-oriented functionality with a C-like syntax. C++ adds greater typing stren...

  8. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Main_Page

    Greta Thunberg, featured on the track. " The 1975 " is a song by the band of the same name and the first track on Notes on a Conditional Form (2020), their fourth album. In the song, Greta Thunberg (pictured) calls for civil disobedience in response to climate change, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Each of their three previous albums began ...

  9. Indonesia C/C++/C#/Objective-C Programmer Community

    www.facebook.com › groups › 128191661072

    Komunitas Programmer C se Indonesia. As you know, "C" is No.1 Programming Language.

  10. List of Indonesian islands by area - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › List_of_Indonesian_islands

    This list of Indonesian islands by area includes all Indonesian islands over 500 km 2 in descending order by area. Island's name. Area. (km 2) Area. (sq mi) Population. Province (s), Country or countries. New Guinea.

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