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  1. Peru - Wikipedia

    nl.wikipedia.org › wiki › Peru

    Peru (Spaans: Perú; Quechua en Aymara: Piruw), officieel de Republiek Peru (Spaans: República del Perú), is een land aan de westkust van Zuid-Amerika.Het wordt begrensd door Ecuador en Colombia in het noorden, Brazilië in het oosten van Peru, Bolivia in het zuidoosten, Chili in het zuiden en de Grote Oceaan in het westen.

  2. Peru - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Peru

    Peru ranks high in social freedom; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Alliance, the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the World Trade Organization; and is considered as a middle power. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians.

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  3. Peru - Wikipedia

    af.wikipedia.org › wiki › Peru
    • Geografie
    • Geskiedenis
    • Geologiese opbou
    • Landskappe
    • Klimaat en Plantegroei
    • Taal en Godsdiens
    • Onderwys
    • Gesondheidsorg en Sosiale Voorsieninge
    • Eksterne Skakels

    Peru is volgens oppervlakte na Argentinië en Brasilië die derde grootste land in Suid-Amerika. Dié land se geografie word deur die Andesgebergtes in die suide en die weste asook die Amasonebekkenin die ooste en noorde gekenmerk. Die Amasonerivier se twee bronriviere, die noordelike Río Marañón en die suidelike Río Ucayali, ontspring in Nevado Mismi, Arequipa, in die Peruaanse Andes. Naby Iquitos kom die twee takke bymekaar en vorm die Amasonerivier. Ander belangrike sytakke in Peru sluit in Rio Juruá, Río Madre de Dios, Rio Purus en Río Putumayo. Die grootste meer is die Titicacameerin die Andes op die grens met Bolivië. Peru se hoofstad Lima is aan die sentrale kus langs die Stille Oseaan geleë. Ander belangrike stede sluit in Arequipa in die suide, die Inkahoofstad Cuscoin die sentrale Andes en Iquitos in die noordelike Amasonebekken.

    Die langste tydperk van Peruaanse geskiedenis is net voor die Spaanse verowering van die Inka-ryk onder Francisco Pizarro in die laat 15de eeu. Die vroegste bewyse van die mens in Peru dui daarop dat die mens omtrent tienduisend jaar gelede van die ander kontinente teen die einde van die laaste ystydperk in die PleistoseenSuid-Amerika bereik het. Die eerste Peruaanse georganiseerde bendes en stamme was jagters en versamelaars. Die jag van die Suid-Amerikaanse camelids in die Andiese hooglande (veral guanacos), visvang en skulpvisoes langs die Stille Oseaankus was die belangrikste ekonomieseaktiwiteite. Hulle het ook klipwerktuie uitgekap. Die progressiewe ontdekking van die landbou (Argaïese tydperk) het 'n toenemend groeiende ekonomie toegelaat. Landbou-siklusse, oorheers deur die sterrekundige priesters, het dit met met groot krag toegerus. Dit is dus geglo dat die eerste komplekse organisasies teokratiese van aard was. Die eerste tempels het langs die sentrale kus en die sentrale...

    Die Andesgebergte, wat hom oor die hele lengte uitstrek, vorm die opvallendste element van die Peruaanse landskap. Die westelike reeks, Cordillera Occidental, is die hoogste en omvat tientalle pieke van meer as 5 000 m hoog, waaronder pieke van meer as 6 000 m, soos Huascaran (6 768 m), Peru se hoogste piek, voorkom. Die oostelike berg reeks, Cordillera Oriental, is dor en kaal en word deur diep valleie gevorm en deur riviere van die Amesonestelseldeursny. Die belangrikste Peruaanse bronrivier van die Amesonerivier is die Río Marañón (met as syriviere onder meer die Río Tigre, Río Santiago en Río Huallaga), die Río Ucayali (met as syriviere onder meer die Río Tapiche, Río Urubamba, Río Ene en Río Pachitea) en die Río Napo. Die westelike Andesreeks word afgewater deur middel van 'n vyftigtal riviere, wat gevoed word deur die smeltende sneeuen welkome oases in die droë kusvlakte vorm. Die meeste riviere het 'n deel van die jaar geen water nie en net een is bevaarbaar, naamlik die Río...

    Globaal kan Peru in drie dele verdeel word: van wes na oos die kusvlakte (costa), die bergland (sierra) en die oerwoud (selva). Die hoogteverskille en wisselinge tussen die hellings, bergrûens, plato's en valleie skep ’n gevarieerde Peruaanse landskap. Deurgaans word ag landskaptipes onderskei, elkeen met sy eie kenmerkende klimaat, plantegroei, grondbenutting en menslike bewoning. Die Chala is die droë kusvlakte, die kusgebied benede 500 m bo seespieël, wat net 12% van die landoppervlakte beslaan, maar waar al die groot stede, onder meer die hoofstad, Lima, lê. Yungas is die naam vir die oerwoudgebiede tussen 300 en 2 500 m bo seespieël op die oostelike en westelike helling van die Andesgebergte, terwyl Rupa-Rupadie laer oostelike helling is. Die Quechuagebied is die naam wat gegee word aan die streke waar die Inkakultuur se grootste nedersettings was. Dit is streke op 'n hoogte tussen 2 500 en 3 800 m met 'n gematigde klimaat. Suni is die naam vir die kaal plato's wat tussen 3 800...

    Peru lê in die tropiese lugstreek. Tog het net die selva 'n tropiese reënwoudklimaat. Die oorheersende suidoospassaat waai nie by die Peruaanse kusvlakte nie, en gevolglik het dit ’n baie droë klimaat. Net in die winter (van Mei tot Oktober) het die mis, wat uit die relatief koue Humboldt-stroom(of Perustroom) kom, ’n bietjie vogtigheid tot gevolg. Bo ’n hoogte van 4 000 m is die klimaat tipies vir hooggebergtes, waar ryp snags die heel jaar voorkom. Die grens van die ewigdurende sneeu lê tussen 5 200 en 6 300 m bo seespieël. 'n Deel van die kusvlakte is onder besproeiing en hier word die belangrikste uitvoergewasse verbou. Verder is dit net 'n kaal gebied, begroei met kort struikgewasse en kaktusse. Die westelike Andesvalleie is natter as die kusvlakte en het vrugbare grond waarop onder meer graan en sitrusvrugte verbou word. Op groter Die curvierhaasmuis (Lagidium viscaccia) kom veral in die suide van Peru nog baie voor. Die dier is ongeveer so groot soos 'n konynen leef in groepe...

    Spaans, Quechua en Aymara is die amptelike tale van Peru. Baie Indiane praat 'n Quechua-taal (die Runa Simi van die Inkas) of Aymara. Tans is 97% van die bevolking Rooms-Katoliek. Die Indiane het egter baie van die elemente uit hul tradisionele godsdienste behou en dit in sommige gevalle met die Rooms-Katolisisme verweef. Daar is godsdiensvryheid in Peru, al verkeer die Rooms-Katolieke Kerk in 'n beskermde posisie.

    Hoewel onderwys in Peru gratis en verpligtend vir alle kinders van 7 tot 16 jaar is, is dit in die praktyk in die verafgeleë gebiede nie moontlik nie, ondanks die verskillende projekte ter bestryding van analfabetisme. Na raming kan 30% van die bevolking nog lees, nog skryf. Die meeste instellings vir voortgesette onderwys, waaronder 20 instellings vir hoër onderwys, is in die kusvlakte. Onder die universiteite is die San Marcos-universiteit in Lima (die oudste in Suid-Amerika, gestig in 1551) die belangrikste, asook die universiteit in Cuzco, wat in 1692 deur die Jesuïeteopgerig is, en die San Christóbal de Hyamanga-universiteit in Ayacucho.

    Gebrekkige higiëniese omstandighede, ondervoeding, ’n hoë kindersterftesyfer en endemiese siektes (waaronder malariaen frambosesiekte) maak gesondheidsorg een van die dringendste voorkeure aan die kant van die owerheid. In beginsel het Peru sedert 1933 'n taamlik volledige stelsel van sosiale voorsieninge, onder meer voorsiening wat betref siekte en werkloosheid, bejaardesorg en jong moeders. In die praktyk trek slegs werknemers in die stedelike gebiede voordeel uit hierdie voorsieninge. Peru se grootste vakbond is die Confederación de Trabajadores del Perú (CTP).

    (en) Toerisme-inligting oor Peru op Wikivoyage
    (es) Amptelike webwerf van die Peruaanse regering
  4. Peru - Wikiwand

    www.wikiwand.com › nl › Peru

    Peru , officieel de Republiek Peru , is een land aan de westkust van Zuid-Amerika. Het wordt begrensd door Ecuador en Colombia in het noorden, Brazilië in het oosten van Peru, Bolivia in het zuidoosten, Chili in het zuiden en de Grote Oceaan in het westen.

  5. Peru - Wikipedia

    so.wikipedia.org › wiki › Peru

    Peru waxay leedahay dad badan oo isku dhafan oo ka badan 31 milyan, oo ay ku jiraan Amerindians, Yurubiyaanka, Afrikaan iyo Asians. Luuqada ugu weyn ee lagu hadlo waa Isbaanish, inkastoo tiro badan oo Peruvians ah ay ku hadlaan Quechua, Aymara ama luuqado kale oo afka hooyo ah.

  6. History of Peru - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › History_of_Peru
    • Inca Empire
    • European Colonization of Peru
    • Viceroyalty of Peru
    • Wars of Independence
    • Republic of Peru
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    The Incas built the largest and most advanced empire and dynasty of pre-Columbian America. The Tahuantinsuyo—which is derived from Quechua for "The Four United Regions"—reached its greatest extension at the beginning of the 16th century. It dominated a territory that included (from north to south): the southwest part of Ecuador, part of Colombia, the main territory of Peru, the northern part of Chile, and the northwest part of Argentina; and from east to west, from the southwest part of Bolivia to the Amazonian forests. The empire originated from a tribe based in Cusco, which became the capital. Pachacutec wasn't the first Inca, but he was the first ruler to considerably expand the boundaries of the Cusco state. He could probably be compared to Alexander the Great (from Macedon), Julius Caesar (of the Roman Empire), Attila (from the Huns tribes) and Genghis Khan (from the Mongol Empire).[citation needed]His offspring later ruled an empire by both violent invasions and peaceful conqu...

    When the Spanish landed in 1531, Peru's territory was the nucleus of the highly developed Inca civilization. Centered at Cuzco, the Inca Empire extended over a vast region, stretching from southwest Ecuador to northern Chile. Francisco Pizarro and his brothers were attracted by the news of a rich and fabulous kingdom. In 1532, they arrived in the country, which they called Peru. (The forms Biru, Pirú, and Berú are also seen in early records.) According to Raúl Porras Barrenechea, Peru is not a Quechuan nor Caribbeanword, but Indo-Hispanic or hybrid. In the years between 1524 and 1526, smallpox, introduced from the conquistadors in Panama and preceding the Spanish conquerors in Peru through transmission among natives, had swept through the Inca Empire. Smallpox caused the death of the Inca ruler Huayna Capac as well as most of his family including his heir, caused the fall of the Inca political structure and contributed to the civil war between the brothers Atahualpa and Huáscar. Tak...

    In 1542, the Spanish Crown created the Viceroyalty of Peru, which was reorganized after the arrival of Viceroy Francisco de Toledo in 1572. He put an end to the indigenous Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba and executed Tupac Amaru I. He also sought economic development through commercial monopoly and mineral extraction, mainly from the silver mines of Potosí. He reused the Inca mita, a forced labor program, to mobilize native communities for mining work. This organization transformed Peru into the principal source of Spanish wealth and power in South America. The town of Lima, founded by Pizarro on 18 January 1535 as the "Ciudad de Reyes" (City of Kings), became the seat of the new viceroyalty. It grew into a powerful city, with jurisdiction over most of Spanish South America. Precious metals passed through Lima on their way to the Isthmus of Panama and from there to Seville, Spain for the Atlantic route, but for the Pacific, it passed to Mexico and disembarked from the port of Acapulco...

    Peru's movement toward independence was launched by an uprising of Spanish-American landowners and their forces, led by José de San Martín of Argentina and Simón Bolívar of Venezuela. San Martín, who had displaced the royalists of Chile after the Battle of Chacabuco, and who had disembarked in Paracas in 1819, led the military campaign of 4,200 soldiers. The expedition, which included warships, was organized and financed by Chile which sailed from Valparaíso in August 1820. San Martin proclaimed the independence of Peru in Lima on 28 July 1821, with the words "... From this moment on, Peru is free and independent, by the general will of the people and the justice of its cause that God defends. Long live the homeland! Long live freedom! Long live our independence!". San Martín received the title of "Protector of Peruvian Freedom" in August 1821 after partially liberating Peru from the Spanish.:295 On 26 and 27 July 1822, Bolívar held the Guayaquil Conferencewith San Martín and attemp...

    Territorial disputes

    After independence, Peru and its neighbors engaged in intermittent territorial disputes. An attempt to unite Peru and Bolivia was made during the period 1836–1839 by Bolivian President Andres de Santa Cruz when the Peru-Bolivian Confederation came into existence. Severe internal opposition led to its demise in the War of the Confederation which dovetailed into a Peruvian attempt to annex Bolivia by Agustín Gamarra that ultimately failed and turned into a protracted war. Between 1857 and 1860...

    Aristocratic Republic

    After the War of the Pacific, an extraordinary effort of rebuilding began. The government started to initiate a number of social and economic reforms in order to recover from the damage of the war. Political stability was achieved only in the early 1900s. In 1894, Nicolás de Piérola, after allying his party with the Civil Party of Peru to organize guerrilla fighters to occupy Lima, ousted Andrés Avelino Cáceresand once again became president of Peru in 1895. After a brief period in which the...

    Alternation between democracy and militarism

    After the worldwide crisis of 1929, numerous brief governments followed one another. The APRA party had the opportunity to cause system reforms by means of political actions, but it was not successful. This was a nationalistic movement, populist and anti-imperialist, headed by Victor Raul Haya de la Torre in 1924. The Socialist Party of Peru, later the Peruvian Communist Party, was created four years later and it was led by Jose C. Mariategui. Repression was brutal in the early 1930s and tens...

    Dobyns, Henry F. and Paul L. Doughty, Peru: A cultural history. New York : Oxford University Press, 1976.
    Higgins, James. A history of Peruvian literature(Francis Cairns, 1987)
    Werlich, David P. Peru: a short history(Southern Illinois Univ Pr, 1978)
  7. Peru – Wikipedija

    hr.wikipedia.org › wiki › Peru
    • Povijest
    • Politika
    • Političke Podjele
    • Zemljopis
    • Gospodarstvo
    • Stanovništvo
    • Kultura
    • Vanjske Poveznice

    Glavni članak: Povijest Perua Tijekom srednjeg vijeka, Peru je bio središte starog američkog carstva Inka. Njihov glavni grad Cuzco je i dan danas veliki grad, s otprilike 300.000 stanovnika. O bogatstvu Inka je čuo i španjolski istraživač Francisco Pizarro, koji je 1531. godine stigao na zemlju koja je danas dio Perua. Oslabljeni poslije nedavnog građanskog rata, Inke su izgubili rat s moćnijim Španjolcima, i Carstvo Inka pada 1541.godine. Za sljedećih 300 godina Peru je jedna od najvažnijih kolonija Španjolskog carstva. Glavni grad Lima brzo postaje najvažniji grad u južnoj Americi. Staro domaće stanovništvo se drastično smanjilo u ovom razdoblju. Sa 12.000.000 stanovnika pri kraju vladavine Inka, 45 godina kasnije Peru ima malo više od 1.000.000 ljudi. Ni politika kolonije Peru nije stabilna pa je sam Pizzaro 1541. godine bio ubijen. Ipak zlato i srebro s Andabogati Španjolsko carstvo, i Peru ostaje vrlo važna kolonija. Peru dobiva neovisnost od Španjolske godine 1821. Uz pomoć s...

    Peru je republika. Svi stariji od 18 godina imaju glasačko pravo. Predsjednički se izbori održavaju svakih 5 godina, a nitko ne može biti izabran više od dva puta. Svaki predsjednik ima dva podpredsjednika. Vijeće Ministara mora provjeriti svaki zakon koji predsjednik predloži parlamentu. Parlament (ili Kongres) ima 120 članova. Glavni sud se nalazi u Limi i ima 16 članova. Sadašnji predsjednik Perua je Francisco Sagasti.

    Peru je podijeljen na 26 regija (španj. Regiones, jed. Región). Od toga su 24 regije podijeljene na pokrajine (španj. Provincias, jed. Provincia), koje se opet dijele na okruge (španj. Distritos, jed. Distrito), dok su regije Lima Metropolitana i Callao podijeljene samo na okruge. Ukupno se regije Perua dijele na 194 pokrajine i 1.821 okruga. Regije Perua: Amazonas (Chachapoyas), Ancash (Huaraz),Apurímac (Abancay),Arequipa, (Arequipa),Ayacucho (Ayacucho),Cajamarca (Cajamarca),Callao (regija) (Callao),Cusco (Cusco),Huancavelica (Huancavelica),Huánuco (Huánuco),Ica (Ica),Junín (Huancayo), La Libertad (Trujillo),Lambayeque (Chiclayo),Lima Metropolitana (Lima),Lima Provincias (Huacho),Loreto (Iquitos),Madre de Dios (Puerto Maldonado),Moquegua (Moquegua),Pasco (Cerro de Pasco)Piura (Piura),Puno (Puno),San Martín (Moyobamba),Tacna (Tacna),Tumbes (Tumbes),Ucayali (Pucallpa)

    Peru se nalazi u Južnoj Americi i graniči s Tihim Oceanom, Čileom, Ekvadorom, Kolumbijom, Brazilom i Bolivijom. Najduža granica je s Brazilom (1560 kilometara), a najkraća je s Čileom (160 kilometara). Ukupno Peru ima područje od 1.285.220 km², od čega 1,28 milijuna km² je zemlja, a 5.220 km² voda. Zapadna primorska polja (Costa) su odvojena od istočne nizine blizu rijeke Amazone (Selva). Između njih su visoke Ande (Sierra). Na granici s Bolivijom je jezero Titicaca, koje se nalazi na nadmorskoj visini od 3821 metra.

    Privatizacija ekonomije Perua dogodila se devedesetih godina, naročito u industriji telekomunikacije, rudarstva, i struje. Od 1994. do 1997. ekonomija Perua je napredovala od stanja iz ranih devedesetih godina, ali od 1998. je značajno oslabila. Za ovo je krivo stanje ekonomije u Aziji, nestabilnost u Brazilu, i El Niño. Važne industrije u Peruu su ribarstvo, automobilska industrija, proiyvodnja željeza i brodogradnja.

    Peru po popisu iz 2002.ima 27.925.628 stanovnika. Od njih 35% je mlađe od 14 godina, 61% između 15 i 64 godina stari, a 4% su stariji od 65 godina. Stanovništvo Perua raste 1,75% godišnje. 45% stanovništva Perua su Indijanci, 37% mestici (mješoviti bijelci i Indijanci), 15% bijelci, a crnci, Japanci, Kinezi i ostali čine 3%. Glavna grupa indijanaca su Quechua, glavna etnička grupa od starog carstva naroda Inka. Službeni jezici su španjolski i Quechua. 81% stanovništva su katolici.88,7% stanovništva zna pisati i čitati. 3.750.492 peruanska državljana govore nekim od indijanskih jezika kao materinskim (35% od ukupnog stanovništva), a najrasprostranjeniji su kečuanski (3.177.938) i ajmarski (440.380). Indijanci pripadaju raznim skupinama među kojima su najbrojniji pripadnici jezičnih porodica Aymaran i Quechuan. Ostale grupe su: Achual, Aguano, Aguaruna, Amahuaca, Amarakaeri (podgrupe: Kochimberi, Küpondirideri, Wíntaperi, Wakitaneri, Kisambaeri, Kareneri), Amuesha, Andoa, Arabela, Ats...

    Kultura Perua je kombinacija Španjolske kulture i kulture Indijanaca. Čak i prije Inka Carstva, Peru je bio center umjetnosti na južnoameričkom kontinentu. Kulture indijanaca poput Chavin, Paracas, Wari, Nazca, Chimu i Tiahuanaco su se davno bavili umjetnošću, poput izrade kipova i nakita. U carstvu Inka, ove tradicije su se nastavile ali zajedno s uspjesima u Arhitekturi, poput gradovima Maču Piču i Cuzco. U dvadesetom stoljeću pokret "indigenismo" je vratio interes u staru indijansku kulturu. Danas Peru umjetnici, pisci, i intelektualci sudjeluju u raznim međunarodnim pokretima i stilovima. Državna Krilatica: Libertad y Orden (Španjolski; "Sloboda i red") 1. Mario Vargas Llosa, peruanski pisac, jedan od vodećih romanopisaca i esejista u Latinskoj Americi.

  8. Peru - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Peru
    • Demographics
    • History
    • Related Pages
    • References
    • Other Websites

    The population of Peru is approx. 30 million. The ethnic composition of Peru is like the following: 1. 44.0%: Mestizo. 2. 31.0%: Native American. 3. 15.0%: European. 4. 7.0%: Mulatto. 5. 2.0%: Black. 6. 1.0%: Asians.

    Peru was the home of the Inca Empire. The Incas were a well-organized Indian civilization that began the city of Cuzco (now called Cusco). Beginning in the 1400s, they defeated many nearby tribes and built an empire in the Andes. The Inca forced the people to work for the king for a certain number of days every year. They used this "work tax" to build roads and terraces on the sides of the mountains to grow crops, and huge cities with rich palaces for the rulers and their queens. Records were kept on quipa, knotted ropes, since the Incas never invented writing. These could be quickly sent anywhere in the empire by a series of relay runners set up along the roads. Heavier loads were sent by llamas, the pack animals of the Andes.The Incas were rich in gold and silver which could be found in the mountains. The Spanish wanted that treasure when they discovered the nation in the 1500s. Francisco Pizarro, a Spanish man, kidnapped and killed the Inca ruler in 1532, even after his people pa...

    Notes 1. ↑ 1.0 1.1 In Peru, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages. In each of these, Peru's official name (Spanish: República del Perú, pronounced: [reˈpuβlika ðel peˈɾu]) is as follows: 1.1. Quechua: Piruw Republika 1.2. Aymara: Piruw Suyu 2. ↑ The 2017 National Census included, for the first time, a question of ethnic self-identificationthat was addressed to people aged 12 and over considering elements such as their ancestry, their customs and their family origin in order to visualize and better understand the cultural reality of the country. 3. ↑ The question about religion included in the 2017 National Censuswas addressed to people aged 12 and over.

  9. Ollantaytambo - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Ollantaytambo

    Ollantaytambo (Quechua: Ullantaytampu) is a town and an Inca archaeological site in southern Peru some 72 km (45 mi) by road northwest of the city of Cusco.It is located at an altitude of 2,792 m (9,160 ft) above sea level in the district of Ollantaytambo, province of Urubamba, Cusco region.

  10. Netherlands - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Netherlands

    .nl, .bq The Netherlands ( Dutch : Nederland [ˈneːdərlɑnt] ( listen ) ), informally Holland , [14] [15] is a country located in Western Europe with territories in the Caribbean . It is the largest of four constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands .

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