La piraterie connaît son âge d'or dans les années 1660, lorsque Français, Anglais et Hollandais attaquent les navires pleins d'or de la couronne espagnole. À partir de 1690, de nouveaux groupes opèrent dans l'océan Indien.
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Cuvântul provine din limba greacă: πειρατής (peiratés) ce înseamnă „agresor”. Similar găsim termenul în latină pirata preluat în franceză, pirate(sub aceste denumiri s-a răspândit și în alte limbi). Comerțul pe mare a fost întotdeauna amenințat, drumurile (rutele) pe mare ale corăbiilor cu mărfuri fiind bine cunoscute de pirați.
Coastele sudice ale Anatoliei (Cilicia, Caria), care, prin configurația lor (golfulețe, mici peninsule), ofereau adăpost tâlharilor mărilor, constituiau baze importante ale piraților antici. Tucidide ne consemneză că polisurile grecești au organizat în secolele al VIII-lea î.Hr. și în al VII-lea î.Hr expediții împotriva piraților; primul dintre aceste orașe-stat a fost Corintul, un important centru comercial elen. În secolul al IV-lea î.Hr., Alexandru Macedon a ordonat acțiuni energice împotr...
Perioada dintre secolele al VIII-lea și al XIX-lea
În 795 vikingii capturează insula Lambey din golful Dublin, de unde vor cuceri jumătate din Irlanda sub conducerea lui Turgerius. Începând cu secolul al XI-lea, pirații vikingi pustiesc coastele Angliei, Scoției, Franței și Germaniei, ajungând până în Irlanda și chiar Marea Mediterană. În 912 cuceresc regiunea Normandiei din dorința unor prăzi mai bogate, între timp Hamburgul este incendiat, iar celelalte orașe din nordul Germaniei sunt distruse, ceea ce va duce în secolul al XIII-lea la form...Horia Matei: Pirați și corsari, Editura Albatros, 1974Philip Gosse: Istoria pirateriei, 1954, tradusă de Leon Levițchi în lb. română, publicată de Editura Politică, 1974
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Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable goods. Those who conduct acts of piracy are called pirates, while the dedicated ships that pirates use are called pirate ships.
Bei Piraterie oder Seeräuberei handelt es sich um Gewalttaten, Eigentumsdelikte oder Freiheitsberaubungen, die zu eigennützigen Zwecken unter Gebrauch eines See- oder Luftfahrzeugs auf hoher See oder in anderen Gebieten verübt werden, die keiner staatlichen Gewalt unterliegen. Bis zum völkerrechtlichen Übereinkommen über die Hohe See 1958 wurden unter Piraterie meist dieselben Taten ...
With Reverso you can find the French translation, definition or synonym for piraterie and thousands of other words. You can complete the translation of piraterie given by the French Definition dictionary with other dictionaries such as: Wikipedia, Lexilogos, Larousse dictionary, Le Robert, Oxford, Grévisse
- Legal Framework and Relation to Piracy
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The commission was the proof the privateer was not a pirate. It usually limited activity to one particular ship, and specified officers, for a specified period of time. Typically, the owners or captain would be required to post a performance bond. The commission also dictated the expected nationality of potential prize ships under the terms of the war. At sea, the privateer captain was obliged to produce the commission to a potential prize ship's captain as evidence of the legitimacy of their prize claim. If the nationality of a prize was not the enemy of the commissioning sovereign, the privateer could not claim the ship as a prize. Doing so would be an act of piracy. In British law, under the Offences at Sea Act 1536, piracy was an act of treason, or raiding a ship without a valid commission. By the late 17th century, the prosecution of privateers loyal to the usurped King James II for piracy began to shift the legal framework of piracy away from treason towards crime against prop...
Privateers who were considered legitimate by their governments include: 1. Francis Drake(England) 2. Miguel Enríquez(Puerto Rico) 3. Pieter van der Does (Dutch Empire) 4. Amaro Pargo (Spanish Empire or Hispanic Monarchy) 5. Hayreddin Barbarossa (Ottoman Empire) 6. Robert Surcouf(France) 7. Lars Gathenhielm(Sweden)
Entrepreneurs converted many different types of vessels into privateers, including obsolete warships and refitted merchant ships. The investors would arm the vessels and recruit large crews, much larger than a merchantman or a naval vessel would carry, in order to crew the prizes they captured. Privateers generally cruised independently, but it was not unknown for them to form squadrons, or to co-operate with the regular navy. A number of privateers were part of the English fleet that opposed the Spanish Armada in 1588. Privateers generally avoided encounters with warships, as such encounters would be at best unprofitable. Still, such encounters did occur. For instance, in 1815 Chasseur encountered HMS St Lawrence, herself a former American privateer, mistaking her for a merchantman until too late; in this instance, however, the privateer prevailed. The United States used mixed squadrons of frigates and privateers in the American Revolutionary War. Following the French Revolution, F...
In Europe, the practice of authorising sea-raiding dated to at least the 13th century but the word 'privateer' was coined sometime in the mid-17th century. A seaman who shipped on a naval vessel was paid a wage and provided with victuals but the mariner on a merchantman or privateer was paid with an agreed share of the takings.This proved to be a far more attractive financial prospect and caused privateering to flourish as a result. The increase in competition for crews on armed merchant vessels and privateers was due, in a large part, because of the chance for a considerable payoff. Privateers were a large part of the total military force at sea during the 17th and 18th centuries. In the first Anglo-Dutch War, English privateers attacked the trade on which the United Provinces entirely depended, capturing over 1,000 Dutch merchant ships. During the subsequent war with Spain, Spanish and Flemish privateers in the service of the Spanish Crown, including the Dunkirkers, captured 1,500...
Modern-day computer hackers have been compared to the privateers of by-gone days. These criminals hold computer systems hostage, demanding large payments from victims to restore access to their own computer systems and data. Furthermore, recent ransomware attacks on industries, including energy, food, and transportation, have been blamed on criminal organizations based in or near a state actor — possibly with the country’s knowledge and approval. Cyber theft and ransomware attacks are now the fastest-growing crimes in the United States. Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies facilitate the extortionof huge ransoms from large companies, hospitals and city governments with little or no chance of being caught.Cochran, Hamilton. Blockade Runners of the Confederacy(U of Alabama Press, 2005).Dyer, Brainerd. "Confederate Naval and Privateering Activities in the Pacific." Pacific Historical Review3.4 (1934): 433-443Ingersoll, Charles Jared (1852). History of the second war between the United States of America and Great Britain: declared by act of Congress, the 18th of June, 1812, and concluded by peace, the 1...Ramsay, Jack C. (1996). Jean Laffite: Prince of Pirates. Eakin Press. ISBN 978-1-57168-029-7.Alberto, Edite Maria Conceição Martins. (2019) "A Pious Business: the ransoming of captives in Early Modern Portugal." E-Journal of Portuguese History17.2 (2019).Beattie, Tim. (2015). British Privateering Voyages of the Early Eighteenth Century(Boydell. 2015).Colás, A. (2016). "Barbary Coast in the expansion of international society: Piracy, privateering, and corsairing as primary institutions." Review of International Studies, 42#5: 840–857.Espersen, Ryan. (2019) "Fifty Shades of Trade: Privateering, Piracy, and Illegal Slave Trading in St. Thomas, Early Nineteenth Century." New West Indian Guide/Nieuwe West-Indische Gids 93.1-2 (2019...Media related to Privateersat Wikimedia CommonsCommerce Raiding: Historical Case Studies, 1755–2009 Naval War College