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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › PolandPoland - Wikipedia

    Poland has over 70 mountains over 2,000 metres (6,600 feet) in elevation, all situated in the Tatras. Poland's highest point is the north-western summit of Mount Rysy at 2,501 metres (8,205 ft) in elevation. At its foot lie the mountain lakes of Czarny Staw (Black Lake) and Morskie Oko (Eye of the Sea), both naturally-made tarns.

  2. Poland was established as a state under the Piast dynasty, which ruled the country between the 10th and 14th centuries. Historical records referring to the Polish state begin with the rule of Duke Mieszko I, whose reign commenced sometime before 963 and continued until his death in 992.

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    Early history

    The first sign of humans in Polish lands was 500,000 years ago. The Bronze Age started around 2400-2300 BC. The Iron Age started around 750-700 BC. At that time the Polish lands were under the influence of the Lusatian culture. About 400 BC Celtic and Germanic tribes lived there. Those people had trade contacts with the Roman Empire. Over time, Slavs came to Polish lands. Some of those Slavs, now commonly referred to as Western Slavs (though in reality a diverse group of tribes with shared et...

    Piast and Jagiellon dynasties

    Poland began to form into a country around the middle of the 10th century in the Piast dynasty. In 966, Prince Mieszko I became a Christian, and so the Polish people also became Christians. The next king was Bolesław I of Poland (called Bolesław the Brave). He conquered many lands and he became the first King of Poland. Casimir I of Poland changed the Polish capital from Gniezno to Kraków. In the 12th century Poland broke into some smaller states after the death of King Bolesław III Wrymouth...

    Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to Second Republic of Poland

    In the 17th century Sweden attacked almost all of Poland (this was called “the Deluge”). Many wars against the Ottoman Empire, Russia, Cossacks, Transylvania and Brandenburg-Prussia ended in 1699. For the next 80 years, the government and the nation were weak, making Poland dependent on Russia. Russian tsars took advantage of this by offering money to dishonest members of the Polish government, who would block new ideas and solutions. Russia, Prussia, and Austria broke Poland into three piece...

    Poland's territory is a plain reaching from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Carpathian Mountainsin the south. Within that plain, the land varies from east to west. The Polish Baltic coast is mostly smooth but has natural harbors in the Gdańsk-Gdynia region and Szczecin in the far northwest. This coast has several spits, dunes and coastal lakes. Coast lakes are former bays that have been cut off from the sea. These areas are sometimes called lagoons. Szczecin Lagoon is on the western border with Germany. The Vistula Lagoon is on the eastern border with Kaliningrad, province of Russia. The longest river in Poland, the Vistula river, empties into the Vistula Lagoon and also directly into the Baltic Sea. The northeastern region is densely wooded, sparsely populated and lacks agricultural and industrial resources. The geographical region has four hilly districts of moraines and lakes created by moraines. These formed during and after the Pleistocene ice age. The Masurian Lake District...

    Almost no Polish literature remains before Christianisation in the 10th century. Polish literature was written in the Latin language during the Middle Ages. The Polish language was accepted as equal to Latin after the Renaissancefor literature. Jan Kochanowski was a leading poet of European Renaissance literature in the 16th century. Other great Polish poets include Adam Mickiewicz who wrote Pan Tadeuszepic in 1834. Several Polish novelists have won the Nobel prize. Henryk Sienkiewicz won in 19 dramatized versions of famous events in Polish history. Władysław Reymont won a Nobel prize in 1924. He wrote the novel Chłopi. Two polish poets won Nobel prize as well. One is Wisława Szymborska (1996) and the second Czesław Miłosz(1980). Stanisław Lem is a famous science fiction author in the modern era. His Solaris novel was made twice into a feature film.

    In the past, Poland was inhabited by people from different nations and of different religions (mainly Catholics, Orthodox and Judaism). This changed after 1939, because of the Nazi Holocaust which killed many Polish Jews. After World War II, the country was changed into a communist country, by the Warsaw Pact which included most central European countries and Russia Russia. Today 38,038,000 people live in Poland (2011). In 2002 96.74% of the population call themselves Polish, while 471,500 people (1.23%) claimed another nationality. 774,900 people (2.03%) did not declare any nationality. Nationalities, or ethnic groups in Poland are Silesians, Germans (most in the former Opole Voivodeship), Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Russians, Jews and Belarusians. The Polish language is part of the West Slavic section of the Slavic languages. It is also the official language of Poland. English and Germanare the most common second languages studied and spoken. In the past few years, Poland's populatio...

    Nicolaus Copernicus, an astronomer who showed that the Earth moves around the Sun.
    Maria Skłodowska-Curie discovered radium and polonium.
    Poland.gov.pl - Polish national portal Archived 2008-10-29 at the Wayback Machine
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    • Overview
    • Topography
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    • Hydrology

    Poland is a country that extends across the North European Plain from the Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains in the south to the sandy beaches of the Baltic Sea in the north. Poland is the fifth-most populous country of the European Union and the ninth-largest country in Europe by area. The territory of Poland covers approximately 312,696 km2, of which 98.52% is land and 1.48% is water. The Polish coastline was estimated at 770 km in length. Poland's highest point is Mount Rysy, at 2,501 m. Topogr

    The country extends 649 kilometers from north to south and 689 kilometers from east to west. The total area is 312,696 square kilometres, including inland waters. The average elevation is 173 meters, and only 3% of Polish territory, along the southern border, is elevated higher than 500 meters. The country's highest peak is Mount Rysy, which rises 2,499 meters in the Tatra Range of the Carpathian Mountains, 95 kilometers south of Kraków. About 63 square kilometers along the Gulf of Gdańsk ...

    The geological structure of Poland has been shaped by the continental collision of Europe and Africa over the past 60 million years on the one hand and the other by the Quaternary glaciations of northern Europe. Both processes shaped the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains. The moraine landscape of northern Poland contains soils made up mostly of sand or loam, while the ice age river valleys of the south often contain loess. The Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, the Pieniny, and the Western ...

    Poland is the fourth most forested country in Europe. Forests cover about 30.5% of Poland's land area based on international standards. Its overall percentage is still increasing. Forests of Poland are managed by the National Program of Reforestation, aiming an increase of forest-coverage to 33% in 2050. The richness of Polish forests is more than twice as high as the European average, containing 2.304 billion cubic metres of trees. The largest forest complex in Poland is Lower Silesian Wilderne

    Phytogeographically, Poland belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the territory of Poland belongs to three Palearctic Ecoregions of the continental forest spanning Central and Northern European temperate broadleaf and mixed forest ecoregions as well as the Carpathian montane conifer forest. A herd of wisents in Białowieża Many animals that have since died out in other parts of Europe ...

    The longest rivers are the Vistula, 1,047 kilometres long; the Oder which forms part of Poland's western border, 854 kilometres long; its tributary, the Warta, 808 kilometres long; and the Bug, a tributary of the Vistula, 772 kilometres long. The Vistula and the Oder flow into the Baltic Sea, as do numerous smaller rivers in Pomerania. The Łyna and the Angrapa flow by way of the Pregolya to the Baltic, and the Czarna Hańcza flows into the Baltic through the Neman. While the great majority ...

  4. sco.wikipedia.org › wiki › PolandPoland - Wikipedia

    Poland is a unitary state made up o saxteen voivodeships (Polish: województwo). Poland is a memmer o the European Union , NATO , and OECD anaw. Ceeties o Poland [ eedit | eedit soorce ]

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