Pskov's independence was formally recognized by Novgorod in 1348. Several years later, the veche promulgated a law code (called the Pskov Charter), which was one of the principal sources of the all-Russian law code issued in 1497. For Russia, the Pskov Republic was a bridge towards Europe; for Europe, it
Pskov, along with Novgorod, was an important centre of trade between Russia and Western Europe. Already in the 13th century German merchants were present in Zapskovye area of Pskov and the Hanseatic League had a trading post in the same area in the first half of 16th century which moved to Zavelichye after a fire in 1562.
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Geography. Pskov Oblast is the westernmost federal subject of contiguous Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast, while located further to the west, is an exclave). It borders with Leningrad Oblast in the north, Novgorod Oblast in the east, Tver and Smolensk Oblasts in the southeast, Vitebsk Oblast of Belarus in the south, and with the counties of Latvia (Alūksne Municipality, Baltinava Municipality ...
- 55,300 km² (21,400 sq mi)
List of Orphanages in Pskov.Find names of orphanages in Pskov for helping orphan kids and children.Get information about orphanage Job / Movie / Book, orphanage volunteer work and adoptation resources etc. in in Pskov (Pskov Oblast), Russia
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The Romans formed their first orphanages around 400 AD. Jewish law prescribed care for the widow and the orphan, and Athenian law supported all orphans of those killed in military service until the age of eighteen. Plato (Laws, 927) says: "Orphans should be placed under the care of public guardians. Men should have a fear of the loneliness of orphans and of the souls of their departed parents. A man should love the unfortunate orphan of whom he is guardian as if he were his own child. He should be as careful and as diligent in the management of the orphan's property as of his own or even more careful still." The care of orphans was referred to bishops and, during the Middle Ages, to monasteries. As soon as they were old enough, children were often given as apprenticesto households to ensure their support and to learn an occupation. In medieval Europe, care for orphans tended to reside with the Church. The Elizabethan Poor Laws were enacted at the time of the Reformationand placed pu...
Orphanages, especially larger ones, have had some well publicised examples of poor care. In large institutions children, but particularly babies, may not receive enough eye contact, physical contact, and stimulation to promote proper physical, social or cognitive development.In the worst cases, orphanages can be dangerous and unregulated places where children are subject to abuse and neglect. One significant study, which disputes this, was carried out by Duke University. Their researchers concluded that institutional care in America in the 20th century produced the same health, emotional, intellectual, mental, and physical outcomes as care by relatives, and better than care in the homes of strangers. One explanation for this is the prevalence of permanent temporary foster care. This is the name for a long string of short stays with different foster care families.Permanent temporary foster care is highly disruptive to the child and prevents the child from developing a sense of securi...
Most of the children living in institutions around the world have a surviving parent or close relative, and the most commonly entered orphanages because of poverty. It is speculated that flush with money, orphanages are increasing and push for children to join even though demographic data show that even the poorest extended families usually take in children whose parents have died. Experts and child advocates maintain that orphanages are expensive and often harm children's developmentby separating them from their families and that it would be more effective and cheaper to aid close relatives who want to take in the orphans. Children living in orphanages for prolonged periods get behind in development goals, have worse mental health. Orphanage children are not included in statistics making it easy to traffic them or abuse them in other ways. There are campaigns to include orphanage children and street childrenin progress statistics.
Visitors to developing countries can be taken in by orphanage scams, which can include orphanages set up as a front to get foreigners to pay school fees of orphanage directors' extended families. Alternatively the children whose upkeep is being funded by foreigners may be sent to work, not to school, the exact opposite of what the donor is expecting. The worst even sell children. In Cambodia, from 2005–2017, the number of orphanages increased by 75%, with many of these orphanages renting children from poor families for $25/month. Families are promised that their children can get free education and food here, but what really happens is that they are used as props to garner donations. Some are also bought from their parents for very little and passed on to westerners who pay a large fee to adopt them. This also happens in China. In Nepal, orphanages can be used as a way to remove a child from their parents before placing them for adoption overseas, which is equally lucrative to the ow...
The orphanages and institutions remaining in Europe tend to be in Eastern Europe and are generally state-funded.
The majority of African orphanages (especially in Sub-Saharan Africa) appear to be funded by donors, often from Western nations, rather than by domestic governments.
Prior to the establishment of state care for orphans in First World countries, private charities existed to take care of destitute orphans, over time other charities have found other ways to care for children. 1. The Orphaned Starfish Foundation is a non-profit organisation based in New York City that focuses on developing vocational schools for orphans, victims of abuse and at-risk youth. It runs fifty computer centers in twenty-five countries, serving over 10,000 children worldwide 2. Lumosworks to replace institutions with community-based services that provide children with access to health, education, and social care tailored to their individual needs. 3. Hope and Homes for Childrenare working with governments to deinstitutionalize their child care systems. 4. Stockwell Home and later Birchington, started by Charles H Spurgeon, is now Spurgeonsafter the last orphanage closed in 1979. Spurgeons Children's Charity provides support to vulnerable and disadvantaged children and famil...
Media related to Orphanagesat Wikimedia Commons 1. Keeping Children Out of Harmful Institutions: Why we should be investing in family-based care 2. Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Orphans and Orphanages" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
Pskov regional Branch of Russian Children's Foundation (RCF). Its address is Jan Fabritsyus Street, 2a office 209, 180017 Pskov, Russia. Tel/fax: +7 (8112) 73-58-81. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Web-site: ngo.pskov/df. Pskov Regional Branch of Russian Children's Foundation is a non-governmental non-profit public charitable organization founded in ...