Russia (Russian: Россия, Rossiya, Russian pronunciation: [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia.It is the largest country in the world, covering over 17 million square kilometres (6.6 × 10 ^ 6 sq mi), and encompassing more than one-eighth of Earth's inhabited land area.
- Size and Resources
- Related Pages
At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is also the world's eighth most populous nation with 143 million people as of 2012. Russia produces a lot of energy made from oil and natural gas. Extending from eastern Europe across the whole of northern Asia, Russia spans eleven time zones and has a wide range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources, and is the largest producer of oil and natural gas in the world. Russia has the world's largest forest reserves, and its lakes contain about one-quarter of the world's fresh water.
Russia is a federal semi-presidential republic. It has a president and a parliament. Russia consists of 85 federal subjects (territorial units). All subjects of the federation shall be equal. All entities are subject to the uniform federal law. Subjects of the federation have two representatives in the parliament. Subjects of the Russian Federation do not have a right to secessionfrom it. Important issues are decided by the Federation President; lesser powers are given to the member republics. At the end of the twentieth century, Russia experienced many political changes. Some people fought to leave from the federation. Elections are held at all levels. According Steve White, the present government made it clear that they had no plans of making a "second edition" of the American or British political system, but rather a system that was closer to Russia's own traditions. Richard Sakwa wrote that the Russian government is considered legitimate by the majority of the Russian people. It...
The roots of Russia's history began when the East Slavs formed a group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. The Vikings and their descendants founded the first East Slavic state of Kievan Rus' in the 9th century. They adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988. This form of Christianity influenced Russian culture greatly. Kievan Rus' eventually broke up and the lands were divided into many small feudal states. The most powerful successor state to Kievan Rus' was the Grand Duchy of Moscow. This area served as the main force in later Russian unification and the fight against the Golden Hordefrom Asia. Moscow slowly gained control of the regions around it and took over the cultural and political life of Kievan Rus'. In the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest, annexation and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history. It stretched from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth eastward to the Pacific Ocean and Alaska....
Russia's capital and the biggest city is Moscow. The second biggest city is Saint Petersburg, which was the capital of Russia in the 18th and 19th centuries. Cities in Russia with more than one million people are, in order: 1. Moscow 2. Saint Petersburg 3. Novosibirsk 4. Yekaterinburg 5. Nizhniy Novgorod 6. Samara 7. Omsk 8. Kazan 9. Ufa 10. Chelyabinsk 11. Rostov on Don 12. Krasnoyarsk 13. Volgograd The most western point of Russia is near Kaliningrad, formerly named Königsberg. The most eastern point of Russia is Diomid island, 35 km from Chukotka (Russia) and 35 kilometres (22 mi) from Alaska (USA). The most southern point is in Caucasus, on the border with Azerbaijan. The most northern point is on Franz Josef Land archipelago in Arctic Ocean, 900 kilometres (560 mi) from the North Pole.
Russia has a population of 142 million citizens. Most people (73.7%) live in cities. The population decreased by 5 million people since the fall of the Soviet Union. The current population growth is close to zero, and the population went down by 0.085% in 2008. Russia's area is about 17 million square kilometers (6.5 million sq. mi.). It is the largest country in the world. Its population density is about 8.3 people per square kilometer (21.5 per sq. mi.). This is among the lowest country densities in the world. The population is most dense in the European part of the country, centering around Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Siberiahas a very low density.
Music and ballet
World-renowned composers of the 20th century included Alexander Scriabin, Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Sergei Prokofiev, and Dmitri Shostakovich. Russia has produced some of the greatest pianists: Anton Rubinstein, Vladimir Horowitz and Vladimir Ashkenazyare among the all-time greats. Russian composer Tchaikovsky created famous ballets such as The Nutcracker. The impressario Sergei Diaghilev was responsible for the development of ballet in the early 20th century with the Ballets Russ...
Russians have contributed many famous works of literature. Alexander Pushkinis considered a founder of modern Russian literature. He was a poet from the 19th century. Other famous poets and writers of the 19th century were Anton Chekhov, Mikhail Lermontov, Leo Tolstoy, Nikolai Gogol (he was born in what is now Ukraine, but during his lifetime Ukraine was a part of Russia), Ivan Turgenev and Fyodor Dostoyevsky. Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky are considered by many people to be two of the greatest nov...
Soccer, ice hockey and basketball are among the most popular sports. Boxing, gymnastics, weightlifting, and tennis are also popular sports. Track suits are popular clothing items for many Russians. Sports people to gain world fame include former tennis world number one Maria Sharapova, who has won three Grand Slam titles, and was the world's highest paid female athlete in 2008. Since the 1952 Olympic Games, Soviet and later Russian athletes are in the three in gold medals collected at the Sum...
Notes 1. ↑ The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSRratified the accords on 12 December, denouncing the 1922 treaty. 2. ↑ On 25 December, Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation and the following day the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Unionratified the accords, effectively dissolving the Soviet Union. 3. ↑ When including the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol, the total area of Russia rises to 17,125,191 km2(6,612,073 sq mi)
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Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally consists of 85 federal subjects. The two located on the Crimean Peninsula, Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea, are not internationally recognized as part of Russia. Kaliningrad Oblast is the only federal subject separated by other countries.
- Officers and members
The Federation Council is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation. Each of the 85 federal subjects of Russia – consisting of 22 republics, 46 oblasts, nine krais, three federal cities, four autonomous okrugs, and one autonomous oblast – sends two senators to the Council, for a total membership of 170 Senators. In addition, the Constitution also provides for senators from the Russian Federation, which can be no more...
The modern history of the Federation Council begins during the 1993 Constitutional Crisis that pitted President Boris Yeltsin's unpopular neoliberal and governmental structure reforms against the increasingly radical Congress of People's Deputies, the nation's legislature. Throughout the year, the congress had grown increasingly dissatisfied with Yeltsin and his cabinet's management of the floundering Russian economy, as well as with its plans for a new constitution for the Russian Federation to
As set in Article 101 of the Russian Constitution, the Federation Council “shall elect among its deputies the chairman of the Council.” Some of the Chairman's official duties include presiding over sessions, formulating and introducing draft agendas, issuing orders and consulting with the Council's various committees, acting as the Council's official representative in the Federal Assembly, and signing resolutions to be passed forth to the president or the State Duma. The current ...
Unlike the State Duma and the provincial legislatures throughout Russia, the Council is not directly elected, but instead chosen by territorial politicians, resembling in some respects the structure of the U.S. Senate prior to the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. The only exclusion was the first Federation council, which was elected on December 12, 1993. According to Article 95, the Council comprises representatives of each Russian federal subject—two from each. One senator is elected by ...
Federation Council is viewed as a more formal chamber of the Federal Assembly. Because of its federalist design, as well as its voting franchise strictly limited to provincial elites, the Council is viewed as less volatile to radical changes. The Council is charged in cooperating with the State Duma in completing and voting on draft laws. Federal laws concerning budgets, customs regulations, credit monitoring, and the ratification of international treaties are to be considered by the Council aft
Committees form a key component to the structure of the Council. Sixteen committees and seven commissions exist for senators to consider legislation and policy on a number of issues ranging from foreign affairs, federal affairs, and youth and sports. Leadership in these committees are determined by the Council Chairman, who remains in correspondence with their findings. These committees include
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, commonly known as the Russian Armed Forces, are the military forces of the Russian Federation. They are divided into the Ground Forces, Navy, and Aerospace Forces. There are also two independent arms of service: Strategic Missile Troops and the Airborne Troops.
- Parliamentary Centre
- See Also
As the Russian legislature, all laws must be voted in the Federal Assembly before they are signed into law. All bills, even those proposed by the Federation Council, must first be considered by the State Duma. Upon adoption by a majority of the full State Duma membership, a draft law is considered by the Federation Council, which has fourteen days to place the bill on its calendar. The Federation Council cannot make changes in bills passed by the Duma and can either approve or reject them. If the Federation Council rejects a bill passed by the State Duma, the two chambers may form a conciliation commission to work out a compromise version of the legislation. If two chambers cannot reach a compromise, or the Duma insists on passing the bill as is, the veto of the Federation Council can be overridden, if two thirds of the Duma's constitutional composition vote in favor of the bill. The State Duma and the Federation Council usually meet separately. Joint sessions are organized when: 1....
In the mid 2000s it was suggested that the Parliamentary centre of the State Duma and Federation Council be combined into one building. In 2012, the idea was supported by President Dmitry Medvedev. Reasons cited for the construction of a new building included the cramped nature of the parliament members' current offices, the remote locations of these offices split across ten locations in Moscow, and the desire of the government to move the bodies away from the city centre to reduce traffic congestion. Various areas of Moscow were examined to serve as the new parliamentary center: Kutuzovsky Prospekt, Frunzenskaya embankment, "Moscow City", Tushino airfield, Krasnaya Presnya, Moskvoretskaya embankment, Park Museon and the Sofia embankment. In September 2014, the Mnyovniki floodplain was selected, a decision which was protested by ecologists. The design of the new building was to be decided on the basis of an architectural competition.The parliamentarians, however, disagreed on aesthe...
- Party structure
- Popular support and electoral results
The Communist Party of the Russian Federation is a communist political party in Russia that adheres to Marxist–Leninist philosophy. The party is often viewed as the immediate successor of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which was banned in 1991 by then–Russian President Boris Yeltsin after a failed coup attempt. It is the second-largest political party in the Russian Federation after United Russia. The youth organisation of the party is the Leninist Young Communist League. The...
The party's current programme was adapted in 2008, where the CPRF declared that it is the only political organisation that consistently upholds the rights of the workers and national interests. According to the programme, the strategic goal of the party is to build in Russia a "renewed socialism, socialism of the 21st century". The program of the Communist Party declared that the party is guided by Marxism–Leninism, based on the experience and achievements of domestic and world science ...
The CPRF is legally registered by in Russia. In organisational terms, it largely mirrors the CPSU, with the party being led by a Central Committee with a commitment to democratic centralism. It has regional offices in 81 federal subjects. Each regional office is controlled by the local committee, headed by the First Secretary. The headquarters of the party is in Moscow. The Leninist Komsomol of the Russian Federation is the youth organisation of the party.
The CPRF is strong in large cities and major industrial and scientific centers as well as in the small towns and cities around Moscow. For example, one of the few polling stations that gave a success to the CPRF during the Russian legislative election of 2007 was at Moscow State University. The CPRF is also strong in the far east of Russia, in Siberia and the Urals.
Marxist theoretician Boris Kagarlitsky writes: "It is enough to recall that within the Communist movement itself, Zyuganov's party was at first neither the sole organisation, nor the largest. Bit by bit, however, all other Communist organisations were forced out of political life. This occurred not because the organisations in question were weak, but because it was the CPRF that had received the Kremlin's official approval as the sole recognised opposition". Andrei Brezhnev, grandson of Soviet l
英語表記は Russian Federation 。 ロシア連邦憲法第1条第2項でロシア連邦とロシア（ Россия 、 Rossíja 、 ラッスィーヤ 、 [rɐˈsʲijə] 発音 [ヘルプ / ファイル] ）は同じ意味としており 、ロシア語においてもロシア連邦の意味でロシアが使われることがある。
The Crimean Peninsula, north of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe, was annexed by the Russian Federation between February and March 2014 and since then has been administered as two Russian federal subjects —the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol. The annexation from Ukraine followed a Russian military intervention in Crimea ...
- 20 February – 26 March 2014, (1 month and 6 days)
- Russian masked troops invade and occupy key Crimean locations, including airports and military bases, following Putin's orders., The head of Ukrainian Navy, Admiral Berezovsky, defects, followed later by half of the Ukrainian military stationed in the region., Russian forces seize the Supreme Council (Crimean parliament) on 27 February. The Council of Ministers of Crimea is dissolved and a new pro-Russian Prime Minister installed., The Supreme Council declares the Republic of Crimea to be an independent, self-governing entity, then holds a controversial referendum on the status of Crimea on 16 March, which results in a majority vote to join the Russian Federation., Treaty signed between the Republic of Crimea and the Russian Federation at the Kremlin on 18 March to formally initiate Crimea's accession to the Russian Federation., The Ukrainian Armed Forces are evicted from their bases on 19 March by Crimean protesters and Russian troops. Ukraine subsequently announces the withdrawal of its forces from Crimea., The Russian State Duma officially passed the Federal Law Admitting to the Russian Federation the Republic of Crimea on 21 March., Russia suspended from G8., International sanctions introduced on Russia.