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    Scandinavia (/ ˌ s k æ n d ɪ ˈ n eɪ v i ə / SKAN-di-NAY-vee-ə) is a subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties.. In English usage, Scandinavia can refer to Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, sometimes more narrowly to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or more broadly to include the Åland Islands, the Faroe Islands, Finland, and Iceland.

  2. By contrast, the term Scandinavia more selectively refers to just Denmark, Norway and Sweden, although other Nordic countries are sometimes included within this definition. The joint ruling of Denmark and Norway from the mid-14th century until 1814, and then the joint rule of Sweden and Norway until 1905, have contributed towards a closely ...

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    • Pre-Historic Age
    • Sami Peoples
    • Viking Age
    • Middle Ages
    • 17th Century
    • 18th Century
    • 19th Century
    • 20th Century
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    Little evidence remains in Scandinavia of the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, or the Iron Age except limited numbers of tools created from stone, bronze, and iron, some jewelry and ornaments, and stone burial cairns. One important collection that exists, however, is a widespread and rich collection of stone drawings known as petroglyphs.

    Since prehistoric times, the Sami people of Arctic Europe have lived and worked in an area that stretches over the northern parts of the regions now known as Norway, Sweden, Finland, and the Russian Kola Peninsula. They have inhabited the northern arctic and sub-arctic regions of Fenno-Scandinavia and Russia for at least 5,000 years. The Sami are counted among the Arctic peoples and are members of circumpolar groups such as the Arctic Council Indigenous Peoples' Secretariat. Petroglyphs and archeological findings such as settlements dating from about 10,000 B.C. can be found in the traditional lands of the Sami. These hunters and gatherers of the late Paleolithic and early Mesolithic were named Komsaby the researchers as what they identified themselves as is unknown. The Sami have been recognized as an indigenous people in Norway since 1990 according to ILO convention 169, and hence, according to international law, the Sami people in Norway are entitled special protection and rights.

    During the Viking Age, the Vikings (Scandinavian warriors and traders) raided, colonized and explored large parts of Europe, the Middle East, northern Africa, as far west as Newfoundland. The beginning of the Viking Age is commonly given as 793, when Vikings pillaged the important British island monastery of Lindisfarne, and its end is marked by the unsuccessful invasion of England attempted by Harald Hårdråde in 1066 and the Norman conquest.


    The Kalmar Union (Danish/Norwegian/Swedish: Kalmarunionen) was a series of personal unions (1397–1520) that united the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden under a single monarch. The countries had given up their sovereignty but not their independence, and diverging interests (especially Swedish dissatisfaction over the Danish and Holsteinishdominance) gave rise to a conflict that would hamper it from the 1430s until its final dissolution in 1523. The Kalmar War in 1611–1613 was the l...


    The Protestant Reformation came to Scandinavia in the 1530s, and Scandinavia soon became one of the heartlands of Lutheranism. Catholicism almost completely vanished in Scandinavia, except for a small population in Denmark.

    Thirty Years War

    The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the Central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire but also involving most of the major continental powers. Although it was from its outset a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, the self-preservation of the Habsburg dynastywas also a central motive. The Danes and then Swedes intervened at various points to protect their interests. The Danish intervention began when Christian IV (...

    Rise of Sweden and the Swedish Empire

    The Swedish rise to power began under the rule of Charles IX. During the Ingrian War Sweden expanded its territories eastward. Several other wars with Poland, Denmark-Norway, and German countries enabled further Swedish expansion, although there were some setbacks such as the Kalmar War. Sweden began consolidating its empire. Several other wars followed soon after including the Northern Wars and the Scanian War. Denmark suffered many defeats during this period. Finally under the rule of Charl...

    Great Northern War

    The Great Northern War was fought between a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Saxony-Poland (from 1715 also Prussia and Hanover) on one side and Sweden on the other side from 1700 to 1721. It started by a coordinated attack on Sweden by the coalition in 1700 and ended 1721 with the conclusion of the Treaty of Nystad and the Stockholm treaties. As a result of the war, Russia supplanted Sweden as the dominant power on the Baltic Seaand became a major player in European politics.


    Both Sweden and Denmark-Norway maintained a number of colonies outside Scandinavia starting in the 17th century lasting until the 20th century. Greenland, Iceland and The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic were Norwegian dependencies that were incorporated into the united kingdom of Denmark-Norway. In the Caribbean, Denmark started a colony on St Thomas in 1671, St John in 1718, and purchased Saint Croix from France in 1733. Denmark also maintained colonies in India, Tranquebar and Frederiks...

    Napoleonic Wars

    Scandinavia was divided during the Napoleonic Wars. Denmark-Norway tried to remain neutral but became involved in the conflict after British demands to turn over the navy. Britain thereafter attacked the Danish fleet at the battle of Copenhagen (1801) and bombarded the city during the second battle of Copenhagen (1807). Most of the Danish fleet was captured following the Second Battle of Copenhagen in 1807. The bombardment of Copenhagen led to an alliance with France and outright war with Bri...

    Sweden and Norway

    On 14 January 1814, at the Treaty of Kiel, the king of Denmark-Norway ceded Norway to the king of Sweden. The terms of the treaty provoked widespread opposition in Norway. The Norwegian vice-roy and heir to the throne of Denmark-Norway, Christian Frederik took the lead in a national uprising, assumed the title of regent, and convened a constitutional assembly at Eidsvoll. On 17 May 1814 the Constitution of Norwaywas signed by the assembly, and Christian Frederik was elected as king of indepen...

    Finnish War

    The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. As a result of the war, Finland which formed the eastern third of Sweden proper became the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within Imperial Russia. Finland remained as a part of Russian Empire until 1917 at which point it became independent. Another notable effect was the Swedish parliament's adoption of a new constitution and a new royal house, that of Bernadotte.

    First World War

    All three Scandinavian countries remained neutral throughout the First World War. The war did have a significant impact on the economy of the area, primarily as a result of the British blockade of Germany. However, they were able to work around that with trade agreement with Britain. Norway's large merchant marine delivered vital supplies to Britain but suffered huge losses in ships and sailors because of indiscriminate attack by the German navy. Denmark called up much of its military, but Ge...

    Development of the welfare state

    All three countries developed social welfare states in the early to mid-20th century. This came about partially because of the domination of the social-democrats in Sweden and Denmark, and the Labour party in Norway.

    Second World War

    Near the beginning of World War II in late 1939, both the Allies and the Axis Powersfeared their enemies gaining power in Scandinavia. Britain believed Germany was planning to invade and made counter plans for its own invasion. At the same time, Germany feared that Britain could gain bases in the area and claimed they suspected an outright invasion. In addition, Germany highly valued the Swedish iron ore they received through Norway and could not afford to lose it. They also desired Norway fo...

    Arnold, Martin. The Vikings: culture and conquest(Hambledon Press, 2006)
    Bagge, Sverre. Cross and Scepter: The Rise of the Scandinavian Kingdoms From the Vikings to the Reformation(Princeton University Press; 2014) 325 pages;
    Bain, R. Nisbet. Scandinavia: A Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden from 1513 to 1900 (2014) online
    Barton, H. Arnold. Scandinavia in the Revolutionary Era 1760–1815, University of Minnesota Press, 1986. ISBN 0-8166-1392-3.
    • Vikings
    • Scandinavians in Fiction and Theater
    • History

    The most famous group of Scandinavians is the Vikings of the Middle Ages. The Vikings attacked and raided but they were also traders, traveling to the Ukraine and starting trade routes to the Middle East. Vikings from Norway were explorers, crossing the North Atlantic in their longships. They came to Iceland and Greenland and built towns and farms there. The Norwegian explorers also came to the east coast of Canada, where they set up at least one settlement, but it did not last into modern times. The Vikings from Denmark came to England, where they affected the history and politics and even the English language. Danish raiders attacked England many times with great violence. Sometimes the Danes would ask that the English pay them to go away. These payments were called "Danegeld" (Danish gold). The priests and bishops of churches on the east coast of England wrote a famous prayer: "deliver us, O Lord, from the wrath of the Norsemen!" "Norsemen" is another way to say "men from the nor...

    Much later, in the 19th century (1800s), Richard Wagner and other artists in the Romantic period made operas and other artwork about ancient Germanic culture. They liked the Vikings because they were not Greeks or Romans. They were the first to have the idea of Vikings wearing helmets with wings or horns on them and drinking out of hollowed-out animal horns. Some ancient Germans wore helmets with horns on them, but real Vikings did not. Wagner and his partners deliberately dressed the actors in the opera Ring des Nibelungenso they would look like ancient Germans and so the audience would feel like modern Germans came from medieval Vikings.

    During the 10th through 13th centuries, when the Christian religion spread through Scandiavia, modern countries started to form there. They came together into three kingdoms: 1. Denmark 2. Sweden 3. Norway These three Scandinavian kingdoms made the Kalmar Union in 1387 under Queen Margaret I of Denmark. However, in 1523, Sweden left the union. Because of this, civil war broke out in Denmark and Norway. Then, the Protestant Reformationhappened, and Catholic and Protestant Christians fought each other. After things settled, the Norwegian Privy Council was abolished: it assembled for the last time in 1537. Denmark and Norway formed another union in 1536, and it lasted until 1814. It turned into the three modern countries Denmark, Norway and Iceland. The borders between Denmark, Sweden and Norway came to the shape they have today in the middle of the seventeenth century: In the 1645 Treaty of Brömsebro, Denmark–Norway gave some territory to Sweden: the Norwegian provinces of Jämtland, H...

    • Encyclopedic Article
    • English Sources
    • Neutrality Or Biased Warning
    • Adding Immigration to Scandinavia Page
    • English Usage Versus Scandinavian Usage
    • External Links Modified
    • Finland as Part of Sweden 1150-1809
    • Tedious
    • Failure to Wp:Hear That This Is English Wikipedia
    • "Sweden First" Edit Warring by User:Thomas.W

    This article is more political than encyclopedic. This article is really biased. Some people still still thinks that Scandinavia is like race of people, like Aryans. This article doesn't answer the most important question: why Nordic countries are so similar. Why Finland was part of Sweden and Finnish people never questioned it, and why in Finland Swedish is still one of the official language. And most important of all historical questions, why Finnish town Turku was second important, after Stockholm in Swedish empire. You can't change the history because of political reasons. It's not encyclopedic. Kulipoika (talk) 14:40, 5 March 2012 (UTC) 1. These questions are more related to Finnish history than Scandinavia; but do see the Finland section and you may add some information to that section if you want. Secondly, the article isn't particularly 'political' (could you explain?), you see that the opening sentence reads "is a historical cultural-linguistic region in northern Europe tha...

    Hello. I am from Denmark, but not residing in Denmark currently. As I have seen a few English dictionaries (which is the stakeholders of the truly English meanings), here are the definitions for the terms Scandinavia and Scandinavian: 1. Cambridge (British), Scandinavian: (a person) coming from Sweden, Norway, or Denmark ( DK + NO + SE 2. Oxford (British), Scandinavia: a cultural region consisting of the countries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark and sometimes also of Iceland, Finland, and the Faroe Islands ( Note the first definition correspond to the Peninsular, which is of no interest DK + NO + SE, sometimes FI, IS and Faroes 3. Oxford (American), Scandinavia: a cultural region consisting of the countries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark and sometimes also of Iceland, Finland, and the Faroe Islands (same as British) DK + NO + SE, sometimes FI, IS and Faroes...

    This article is generally good but it seems there are many views as what scandinavia is and it seems that people who moderate this site are trying to find sources supporting their views on the matter. I would suggest putting on the top of the article warning about this article that may be biased or not neutral and may not be up to wikipedia standards. Frankly, I don't believe that this article never will be. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 13:13, 23 August 2012 (UTC) 1. Sorry, but you will have to be more specific about what it is you percieve as POV in this article for a template to be warranted. --Saddhiyama (talk) 14:58, 23 August 2012 (UTC) 1.1. The Prescriptivism from the strict definition side is pretty blatant in the article, and that is certainly POV.--Wlerin (talk) 20:37, 10 April 2014 (UTC)

    Hi I am interested in creating an additional page about Immigration to Scandinavia and the specific details of the conflicts that rise regarding access to the social services offered within welfare states and issues of recent cultural and racial diversity in nations that have historically been very heterogeneous. I am also considering adding a page on Immigration to Denmark since one has not been created yet. Have any of you considered creating a page or a heading about trends in Scandinavian immigration and the similarities and differences in country policies? Do you foresee any issues in creating either of these pages? Thank you (Rloftis5672 (talk) 02:55, 22 September 2014 (UTC))

    Reading this article, it's hard not to feel that some users confuse Scandinavian usage of Scandinavia with English usage of Scandinavia. In all Scandinavian languages, Scandinavia is completely unambiguous. It refers to Denmark, Norway and Sweden and is probably understood in that way by all three of them. In English usage, it is much more ambiguous and it is exceedingly easy to find sources using Scandinavia to refer to Denmark, Norway and Sweden only, but it's at least as easy to find sources including Finland, sometimes but less often Iceland as well. In its current stage, the article reads quite much like an attempt to "explain" to English-speaking readers what Scandinavia "really" is, based in the definition in the Scandinavian languages. That's a pretty fundamental mistake. The definition of Scandinavia in Scandinavian languages is irrelevant here (although certainly worth mentioning in the article). This is English Wikipedia, and we follow English usage (WP:UE). As it is abun...

    Hello fellow Wikipedians, I have just added archive links to 5 external links on Scandinavia. Please take a moment to review my edit. If necessary, add {{cbignore}} after the link to keep me from modifying it. Alternatively, you can add {{nobots|deny=InternetArchiveBot}}to keep me off the page altogether. I made the following changes: 1. Added archive to 2. Added archive to 3. Added archive to 4. Added archive to 5....

    The caption of the picture on side of the History chapter says "The traditional lands of Sweden (Finland was a part of Sweden, called Österland, until 1809)" can be seen uncomfortable. The term "traditional" includes the view that Finland belongs to Sweden. It compares to phrase "Estonia is traditional part of Russia". The timeframe 1150-1809 is long, but the history of Finland and Finnic people is much much longer. Also the nation-state kind of view where "Finland is traditionally" part of Sweden is also wrong in the sense that strict boarders of nations are idea of 1700s and the actual Swedish influence in early phase of Swedish empire (1100-1500) can strictly been seen in couple of bigger cities like Turku and Viipuri and on the western coastline of Finland. These are some reasons why the whole picture is actually wrong and should be deleted, because it creates false images of the reality in 1100-1700. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 07:55, 4 February 2...

    This article seems to be a never-ending edit war in which Scandinavian users keep reverting to what Scandinavia means in their languages. That's irrelevant here, this is English Wikipedia. In English usage, Scandinavia always refers to Denmark, Norway and Sweden and sometimes to Finland and Iceland. There are two ways to violate NPOV. One is to say that Scandinavia is all five countries, the other is to say that Scandinavia is just the three countries. Both of those opposing views, which people keep edit warring about, fly in the face of the well documented fact that English usage is less clear cut, and good sources can be found for both usages. That being the case, we report that situation and we do not take sides for one version or another. Jeppiz (talk) 11:36, 3 February 2016 (UTC) You are wrong, and this has been established by longstanding consensus here. There is an article specifically on the concept including Finland and Iceland, and it's not this article, as already the hat...

    It's starting to get seriously disruptive that some Scandinavian users are unable to understand that even though the topic of this article is Scandinavia, it's still an article on English Wikipedia. I'm Swedish myself, I know perfectly well what Skandinavien means in Swedish and I'd never confound it with Norden. What some (many) of my fellow Scandinavians apparently fail to understand is that it does not mean anything on English Wikipedia what our national usage is, and the continued insistence to impose Scandianvian usage here is just as misplaced as all Muslim users who demand us to censor Muhammad because it does not sit well with their sensibilities. It's a matter of fact that English usage is hesitant on Scandinavia. As has been exceptionally well explained over and over again, it's possible to find English sources conforming to Scandinavian usage (only Denmark, Norway and Sweden) and to find English sources using Scandinavia for the Nordic countries. What some fail to WP:HEAR...

    A user Thomas.W, who apparently stresses his "ethnic Swedish" heritage on his user page, is involved in (has started) an edit war to add "Sweden" first, before the other countries, instead of the alphabetical order which is the most common (and the established order in this article as well), in blatant disregard of talk page consensus here (even among other editors who say they are Swedish) and previous discussion of that issue. Further incidents involving Thomas.W: 1. Pincrete adds a clarify tag to the wording "foreign usage" (which I agree could be better) 2. I change it to "outside the Nordic countries", hopefully resolving the issue 3. Thomas.W reverts back to "foreign usage" andremoves the clarify tag without specifying a reason Thomas.W is also involved in Wikipedia:content forking by adding Internet TLDs and whatnot for all the countries in the Nordic countriesarticle, thus duplicating that article to promote his own POV. Furthermore, Thomas.W is edit-warring against the esta...

  4. Satellite photo of the Scandinavian Peninsula, March 2002 "Scandinavia" refers to Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands, Finland and Iceland, though that broader region is usually known by the countries concerned as Norden (Finnish: Pohjoismaat, Icelandic: Norðurlöndin, Template:Lang-fo), or the Nordic countries.