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  1. › wiki › ScandinaviaScandinavia - Wikipedia

    Scandinavia (/ ˌ s k æ n d ɪ ˈ n eɪ v i ə / SKAN-di-NAY-vee-ə) is a subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties.. In English usage, Scandinavia can refer to Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, sometimes more narrowly to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or more broadly to include the Åland Islands, the Faroe Islands, Finland, and Iceland.

    • Vikings
    • Scandinavians in Fiction and Theater
    • History

    The most famous group of Scandinavians is the Vikings of the Middle Ages. The Vikings attacked and raided but they were also traders, traveling to the Ukraine and starting trade routes to the Middle East. Vikings from Norway were explorers, crossing the North Atlantic in their longships. They came to Iceland and Greenland and built towns and farms there. The Norwegian explorers also came to the east coast of Canada, where they set up at least one settlement, but it did not last into modern times. The Vikings from Denmark came to England, where they affected the history and politics and even the English language. Danish raiders attacked England many times with great violence. Sometimes the Danes would ask that the English pay them to go away. These payments were called "Danegeld" (Danish gold). The priests and bishops of churches on the east coast of England wrote a famous prayer: "deliver us, O Lord, from the wrath of the Norsemen!" "Norsemen" is another way to say "men from the nor...

    Much later, in the 19th century (1800s), Richard Wagner and other artists in the Romantic period made operas and other artwork about ancient Germanic culture. They liked the Vikings because they were not Greeks or Romans. They were the first to have the idea of Vikings wearing helmets with wings or horns on them and drinking out of hollowed-out animal horns. Some ancient Germans wore helmets with horns on them, but real Vikings did not. Wagner and his partners deliberately dressed the actors in the opera Ring des Nibelungenso they would look like ancient Germans and so the audience would feel like modern Germans came from medieval Vikings.

    During the 10th through 13th centuries, when the Christian religion spread through Scandiavia, modern countries started to form there. They came together into three kingdoms: 1. Denmark 2. Sweden 3. Norway These three Scandinavian kingdoms made the Kalmar Union in 1387 under Queen Margaret I of Denmark. However, in 1523, Sweden left the union. Because of this, civil war broke out in Denmark and Norway. Then, the Protestant Reformationhappened, and Catholic and Protestant Christians fought each other. After things settled, the Norwegian Privy Council was abolished: it assembled for the last time in 1537. Denmark and Norway formed another union in 1536, and it lasted until 1814. It turned into the three modern countries Denmark, Norway and Iceland. The borders between Denmark, Sweden and Norway came to the shape they have today in the middle of the seventeenth century: In the 1645 Treaty of Brömsebro, Denmark–Norway gave some territory to Sweden: the Norwegian provinces of Jämtland, H...

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  3. › wiki › ScandinavianScandinavian - Wikipedia

    People. Scandinavians or North Germanic peoples, the most common name for modern North Germanic peoples. Scandinavians, any citizen of the countries of Scandinavia. Scandinavians, ethnic groups originating in Scandinavia, irrespective of ethnolinguistic affiliation.

  4. › wiki › Demographics_of_ScandinaviaNordic countries - Wikipedia

    Scandinavia refers typically to the cultural and linguistic group formed by Denmark, Norway and Sweden, or the Scandinavian Peninsula, which is formed by mainland Norway and Sweden as well as the northwesternmost part of Finland. Outside of the Nordic region the term Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym for the Nordic countries.

    • 3,425,804 km² (1,322,710 sq mi) (7th)
    • 27,359,000 (49th)
    • Untitled
    • Map
    • Who Are The Scandinavians This Article Is About?
    • Move Discussion in Progress
    • The Sámi and Finns Are Peoples of Their Own
    • Issues and Suggested Solutions

    you should include the finns in the list 1. Yes, I found it rather confusing as clicking on "Nordic" results on a page that has Finland listed? mwe85.156.251.13 (talk) 19:04, 16 December 2008 (UTC) Finns are not Scandinavians. Their language is totally unrelated to Scandinavian. Lindatavlov (talk) 06:05, 14 March 2009 (UTC) 1. Wrong, they are, since scandinavian is merely a geo expression, not an ethno-linguistic one. The Ogre (talk) 16:28, 28 March 2009 (UTC) 1. 1.1. If you have no knowledge of Scandinavia, I advise you to stay out of this discussion. Scandinavia is not "merely a geo expression", it's a cultural, linguistic and ethnic region. The Scandinavians are an ethnic group in the same way as Germans in Germany, Austria and other ethnically German nations. They have common ancestors, a common language (in Scandinavia it's a dialect continuum in the same way as German), common culture, religion and every other aspect that constitutes an ethnic group. There has been a Scandinav...

    Perhaps a map more akin to would be more appropriate. The current one (Scandinavia_location_map_definitions.PNG) deals with geography, not ethnicity. There would be no need for different colours for different countries though. I don't know if there are any areas to the north with Sami majorities but they should be discluded. Pollodiablowiki (talk) 04:57, 20 February 2010 (UTC)

    I think this article is confusing and possibly NPOV, by not having a good definition of what it is about. The article says: 1. "Scandinavians are a group of Germanic peoples, inhabiting Scandinavia, which includes Danes, Norwegians and Swedes. [...] Scandinavians were known as Norsemen during the Middle Ages. [...] Scandinavians may in a modern context also be used to refer to the inhabitants of the three Scandinavian countries" This is how the subject is defined. Now, "a group" seems to mean a subset of the population. Then we have to sets of statistics, where seemingly all population of Finland is counted in one of them, and an approximate number of Swedish speakers in the other. For Sweden the numbers are the same in both sets. For USA and Australia we have a sum of people with some of the main ancestors from a Scandinavian country. It seems people with a Swedish mother and a Norwegian father are counted twice (regardless of ethnic background or ethnic identity). Here obviously d...

    There is a move discussion in progress on Talk:North Germanic peoples which affects this page. Please participate on that page and not in this talk page section. Thank you. —RMCD bot18:18, 1 September 2018 (UTC)

    The inclusion of the Sámi and Finns here is not only wrong and insensitive, but colonialist, outdated and racist. The reason that we have a separate article on the Sámi people, defined as "an indigenous Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large northern parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Kola Peninsula within the Murmansk Oblast of Russia," is precisely because they are a people of their own, and not part of the Scandinavian ethnolinguistic group (also sometimes referred to as North Germanic in specialist scholarly usage). The Sámi living (mostly in the periphery of) what is now called Scandinavia were in the past the victims of a policy of forced assimilation whereby they were forced to speak Scandinavian languages and which sought to destroy their own culture; the inclusion of them as Scandinavians is a legacy of that policy, and not recognised by anyone today. The same goes for the Finns. As it was pointed out above in the disc...

    This article reads like a dictionary entry. It speaks volumes that virtually all sources used in this article are from dictionaries. Pay in mind that Wikipedia is not a dictionary. Out of the various "Scandinavian" concepts mentioned here, the only one notable enough to have its own article is North Germanic peoples. We do not have separate articles for inhabitants of Africa, the Americas or other important regions of the world. I fail to see then how the inhabitants of the region of Scandinavia, which isn't even clearly defined, is notable. I suggest that the content of this article be merged into a section on demographics at the Scandinavia article, and to make this article a redirect to North Germanic peoples, per WP:PRIMARYTOPIC. Krakkos (talk) 08:38, 12 December 2019 (UTC) 1. 1.1. These are sensible points, and perhaps it would be good to get rid of this troublesome article (and redirect to Scandinavia). As it stands, I think we should think of it basically as being a disambigu...

    • Geography
    • History
    • Subdivisions
    • Politics and Governance
    • Religion, Culture and Economy
    • Present Day Influence
    • References
    • Further Reading

    The Northern Isles, known to the Norse as the Norðreyjar, are the closest parts of Scotland to Norway and these islands experienced the first and most long-lasting Norse influence of any part of Scotland. Shetland is some 300 kilometres (190 mi) due west of Norway and in favourable conditions could be reached in 24 hours from Hordaland in a Viking longship.Orkney is 80 kilometres (50 mi) further to the south west. Some 16 kilometres (10 mi) due south of Orkney is the Scottish mainland. The two most northerly provinces of mainland Scotland, Caithness and Sutherland, fell under Norse control at an early date. South of there the entire western seaboard of mainland Scotland from Wester Ross to Kintyrewas also subject to significant Scandinavian influence. The Suðreyjar, or "Southern Isles" include: 1. The Hebrides or Western Isles comprising:[Note 1] 1.1. The Outer Hebrides, aka the "Long Island" to the west, separated from the northern Inner Hebrides by the waters of the Minch. These i...

    Contemporary documentation of the Viking period of Scottish history is very weak. The presence of the monastery on Iona led to this part of Scotland being relatively well recorded from the mid-6th to the mid-9th century. But from 849 on, when Columba's relics were removed in the face of Viking incursions, written evidence from local sources all but vanishes for three hundred years. The sources for information about the Hebrides and much of northern Scotland from the 8th to the 11th century are thus almost exclusively Irish, English or Norse. The main Norse text is the Orkneyinga Saga, which was written in the early 13th century by an unknown Icelander. The English and Irish sources are more contemporary, but may have "led to a southern bias in the story", especially as much of the Hebridean archipelago became Norse-speaking during this period.Dates should therefore be regarded as approximate throughout. The archaeological record for this period is relatively scant, although improvin...


    The Northern Isles were "Pictish in culture and speech" prior to the Norse incursions, and although it is recorded that Orkney was "destroyed" by King Bridei in 682 it is not likely that the Pictish kings exerted a significant degree of ongoing control over island affairs. According to the Orkneyinga Saga, about 872 Harald Fairhair became King of a united Norway and many of his opponents fled to the islands of Scotland. Harald pursued his enemies and incorporated the Northern Isles into his k...

    Caithness and Sutherland

    In early Irish literature Shetland is referred to as Inse Catt—"the Isles of Cats", which may have been the pre-Norse inhabitants' name for these islands. The Cat tribe certainly occupied parts of the northern Scottish mainland and their name can be found in Caithness, and in the Gaelic name for Sutherland (Cataibh, meaning "among the Cats"). There is limited evidence that Caithness may have had an intermediate phase of Gaelic-speaking control between the Pictish era and the Norse takeover,bu...


    Like the Northern Isles, the Outer Hebrides and the northern Inner Hebrides were predominantly Pictish in the early 9th century. By contrast, the southern Inner Hebrides formed part of the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata. The obliteration of pre-Norse names in the Outer Hebrides and in Coll, Tiree and Islay in the Inner Hebrides is almost total and there is little continuity of style between Pictish pottery in the north and that of the Viking period. The similarities that do exist suggests the la...

    Internal politics

    The first phase of Norse expansion was that of war bands seeking plunder and the creation of new settlements. The second phase involved the integration of these settlers into organised political structures of which the most prominent in the early part were the Earls of Orkney in the north and the Uí Ímairin the south. Even if the commencement of a formal earldom of Orkney is a matter of discussion (see above) there is little doubt that the institution experienced continuity thereafter. Until...

    Relations with Pictland, Strathclyde and Alba

    The early Viking threats may have speeded a long term process of gaelicisation of the Pictish kingdoms, which adopted Gaelic language and customs. There was a merger of the Gaelic and Pictish crowns, although historians continue to debate whether it was a Pictish takeover of Dál Riata, or the other way around. This culminated in the rise of Cínaed mac Ailpín in the 840s, who brought to power the House of Alpinwho were leaders of a combined Gaelic-Pictish kingdom for almost two centuries. In 8...

    Although there is evidence of varying burial rites practised by Norse settlers in Scotland, such as grave goods found on Colonsay and Westray, there is little that enables a confirmation that the Norse gods were venerated prior to the reintroduction of Christianity. The Odin Stone has been used as evidence of Odinic beliefs and practices but the derivation may well be from "oathing stone". A few Scandinavian poetic references suggest that Orcadian audiences understood elements of the Norse pantheon, although this is hardly conclusive proof of active beliefs.Nonetheless, it is likely that pagan practices existed in early Scandinavian Scotland. According to the sagas, the Northern Isles were Christianised by Olav Tryggvasson in 995 when he stopped at South Walls on his way from Ireland to Norway. The King summoned the jarl Sigurd the Stout and said "I order you and all your subjects to be baptised. If you refuse, I'll have you killed on the spot and I swear I will ravage every island...

    Norse and Viking colonisations and settlements have made an impression on peripheral Scotland, the evidence for which can be found in place names, language, genetics and other aspects of cultural heritage. The Scandinavian influence in Scotland was probably at its height in the mid 11th century during the time of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, who attempted to create a single political and ecclesiastical domain stretching from Shetland to Man. The Suðreyjar have a total land area of approximately 8,374 square kilometres (3,233 sq mi).[Note 14] Caithness and Sutherland have a combined area of 7,051 square kilometres (2,722 sq mi) and the permanent Scandinavian holdings in Scotland at that time must therefore have been at minimum between a fifth and a quarter of the land area of modern Scotland.[Note 15] The Viking invasions may have inadvertently played a role in the creation of modern Scotland. Their destructive raids initially weakened Pictland, Strathclyde and Dal Riata, but these "harassed...

    General references
    Downham, Clare "England and the Irish-Sea Zone in the Eleventh Century" in Gillingham, John (ed) (2004) Anglo-Norman Studies XXVI: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 2003. Woodbridge. Boydell Pre...
    Etchingham, Colman (2001) "North Wales, Ireland and the Isles: the Insular Viking Zone". Peritia. 15pp. 145–87
    Howorth, Henry H. (January 1911). "Ragnall Ivarson and Jarl Otir". The English Historical Review. 26 (101): 1–19. doi:10.1093/ehr/XXVI.CI.1.
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