Scotland (Scots: Scotland, Scottish Gaelic: Alba [ˈal̪ˠapə] ()) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154-kilometre) border with England to the southeast and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast and east, and the Irish Sea to ...
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Queen Anne, the last monarch of the House of Stuart, died in...
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The mainland of Scotland makes up ⅓ of the size of the Great Britain, and is to the northwest of mainland Europe. The size of the land of Scotland is 78,772km² (30,414 sq mi). Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for 96 kilometres (60 mi) across. The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. The island...
The history of Scotland begins when humans first began to live in Scotland after the end of the last ice age. Of the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age civilization that existed in the country, many fossils remain, but no written records were left behind. These people did not have writing. St Kilda, Heart of Neolithic Orkney and Skara Brae are all...
The official languages of Scotland are English, Scots and Scottish Gaelic. English is spoken by most people in Scotland, while only a small number, mostly in the Western Isles, speaks Scottish Gaelic. Scottish Gaelic began declining in the late Middle Ages when Scottish kings and nobles preferred English.
Football is the most popular sport in Scotland. Three of the big cities, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundee, have two or three big football teams, and most cities have at least one team. The two most famous teams in Scotland are known as the "Old Firm". These are Celtic and Rangers. These two Glasgow clubs have a lot of history, and are fierce rivals, often causing fights, riots and even murders between the fans. Rangers are world record holders, having won the most amount of league titles of any...
In 1925, 1984 and 1990, Scotland were winners of the Five Nations' Gran Slam, having beaten all four other teams - England, Wales, Ireland and France.
Golf is a popular sport in Scotland. It is unique, as Scotland is the birthplace of golf, and there are many public golf courses where people can play for small fees. Everywhere else in the world, golf is a game for the rich. Sandy Lyle was the first Scottish golfer to win a major title in modern times. Colin Montgomeryis one of the best players never to have won a major championship after finishing second five times.
Traditional Scottish musical instruments include: the bagpipe, accordion, the fiddle, the harp and tin whistle.
The recorded history of Scotland begins with the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 1st century, when the province of Britannia reached as far north as the Antonine Wall. North of this was Caledonia, inhabited by the Picti, whose uprisings forced Rome's legions back to Hadrian's Wall. As Rome finally withdrew from Britain, Gaelic raiders called ...
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Repeated glaciations, that kivered the hale laund-mass o modren Scotland, hae malafoustered ony traces that micht hae existit o bodies bidin thare afore the Mesolithic period. It is thocht that the first post-glacial groups o hunter-gaitherers wan til Scotland aboot 12,800 year syne, as the ice sheet retreated efter the last glaciation. Groups o sattlers begoud biggin the first kent permanent hooses on Scots syle aroond 9,500 year aby, an the first clachans around 6,000 year syne. The weel-pr...
The written protohistory o Scotland begoud wi the in comin o the Roman Empire in soothren an central Great Breetain, whan the Romans occupied whit is nou Ingland an Wales, administerin it as a province cried Britannia. Roman invasions an occupations o soothren Scotland war a series o brief interludes. In 83–4 AD the general Gnaeus Julius Agricola defeated the Caledonians at the battle o Mons Graupius, an Roman forts war briefly set alang the Gask Ridge naur tae the Hieland line (nane are kent...
In 1603, James VI, King o Scots inherited the throne o the Kinrick o Ingland, an becam KingJames I o Ingland, an left Edinburgh for Lunnon. Apairt frae a short period unner the Protectorate, Scotland steyed a sinder state, but there wis guid puckle conflict atween the croun an the Covenanters ower the form o kirk government. Efter the Glorious Revolution, the abolition o episcopacy an the dingin doun o the Roman Catholic James VII by William an Mary, Scotland briefly shored tae wale a differe...
Scotland haes mair nor 790 ilands, that ar sindert intil fower groups: Shetland, Orkney, an the Hebrides, that ar sub-dividit intil the Inner Hebrides an Ooter Hebrides, the ail o Mullisnae ti be forgotten.
English began to have increased influence in Scotland from the mid-16th century. The Kingdom of Scotland ( Scottish Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Scots: Kinrick o Scotland, Norn: Kongungdum Skotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.