Scotland (Scots: Scotland, Scottish Gaelic: Alba [ˈal̪ˠapə] ()) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154 km) border with England to the southeast and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast and the Irish Sea to the south.
People lived in Scotland for at least 8,500 years before Britain's recorded history.At times during the last interglacial period (130,000–70,000 BC) Europe had a climate warmer than today's, and early humans may have made their way to Scotland, with the possible discovery of pre-Ice Age axes on Orkney and mainland Scotland.
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The Kingdom of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern third of the island of Great Britain , sharing a land border to the south with the Kingdom of ...
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The mainland of Scotland makes up ⅓ of the size of the Great Britain, and is to the northwest of mainland Europe. The size of the land of Scotland is 78,772km² (30,414 sq mi). Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for 96 kilometres (60 mi) across. The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. The island of Ireland is only 30 kilometres (20 mi) from the southern part of Kintyre, Norway is 305 kilometres (190 mi) to the east and the Faroe Islands are 270 kilometres (168 mi) to the north. Scotland's land also includes several islands, including the Inner and Outer Hebrides off the west coast and the archipelagoes of Orkney and Shetlandto the north of the mainland. Compared to the other areas of the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, Scotland is sparsely populated, most especially the north-western half of it. The main geographical feature that dictates this is the Highland Boundary Faultwhich roughly splits the country in half from the s...
The history of Scotland begins when humans first began to live in Scotland after the end of the last ice age. Of the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age civilization that existed in the country, many fossils remain, but no written records were left behind. These people did not have writing. St Kilda, Heart of Neolithic Orkney and Skara Brae are all World Heritage Sites, as are the Antonine Wall and New Lanarkon the mainland. Because of where Scotland is in the world and its strong reliance on trade routes by sea, the nation held close links in the south and east with the Baltic countries, and through Ireland with France and Europe. The sea was very important for trade reasons. Following the Acts of Union and Industrial Revolution, Scotland grew to be one of the largest commercial, intellectual and industrial states in Europe.
The official languages of Scotland are English, Scots and Gaelic. English is spoken by most people in Scotland, while only a small number, mostly in the Western Isles, speaks Gaelic. Gaelic began declining in the late Middle Ageswhen Scottish kings and nobles preferred English.
Football is the most popular sport in Scotland. Three of the big cities, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundee, have two or three big football teams, and most cities have at least one team. The two most famous teams in Scotland are known as the "Old Firm". These are Celtic and Rangers. These two Glasgow clubs have a lot of history, and are fierce rivals, often causing fights, riots and even murders between the fans. Rangers are world record holders, having won the most amount of league titles of any...
In 1925, 1984 and 1990, Scotland were winners of the Five Nations' Gran Slam, having beaten all four other teams - England, Wales, Ireland and France.
Golf is a popular sport in Scotland. It is unique, as Scotland is the birthplace of golf, and there are many public golf courses where people can play for small fees. Everywhere else in the world, golf is a game for the rich. Sandy Lyle was the first Scottish golfer to win a major title in modern times. Colin Montgomeryis one of the best players never to have won a major championship after finishing second five times.
Traditional Scottish musical instruments include: the bagpipe, accordion, the fiddle, the harp and tin whistle.
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Repeated glaciations, that kivered the hale laund-mass o modren Scotland, hae malafoustered ony traces that micht hae existit o bodies bidin thare afore the Mesolithic period. It is thocht that the first post-glacial groups o hunter-gaitherers wan til Scotland aboot 12,800 year syne, as the ice sheet retreated efter the last glaciation. Groups o sattlers begoud biggin the first kent permanent hooses on Scots syle aroond 9,500 year aby, an the first clachans around 6,000 year syne. The weel-pr...
The written protohistory o Scotland begoud wi the in comin o the Roman Empire in soothren an central Great Breetain, whan the Romans occupied whit is nou Ingland an Wales, administerin it as a province cried Britannia. Roman invasions an occupations o soothren Scotland war a series o brief interludes. In 83–4 AD the general Gnaeus Julius Agricola defeated the Caledonians at the battle o Mons Graupius, an Roman forts war briefly set alang the Gask Ridge naur tae the Hieland line (nane are kent...
In 1603, James VI, King o Scots inherited the throne o the Kinrick o Ingland, an becam Keeng James I o Ingland, an left Edinburgh for Lunnon. Apairt frae a short period unner the Protectorate, Scotland steyed a sinder state, but there wis guid puckle conflict atween the croun an the Covenanters ower the form o kirk government. Efter the Glorious Revolution, the abolition o episcopacy an the dingin doun o the Roman Catholic James VII by William an Mary, Scotland briefly shored tae wale a diffe...
Scotland haes mair nor 790 ilands, whilk ar sindert intil fower groups: Shetland, Orkney, an the Hebrides, whilk ar sub-dividit intil the Inner Hebrides an Ooter Hebrides, the ail o Mullisnae ti be forgotten.
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The geography of Scotland is varied, from rural lowlands to unspoilt uplands, and from large cities to sparsely inhabited islands. Located in Northern Europe, Scotland comprises the northern half of the island of Great Britain as well as 790 surrounding islands encompassing the major archipelagos of the Shetland Islands, Orkney Islands and the Inner and Outer Hebrides. Scotland's only land border is with England, which runs for 96 miles in a northeasterly direction from the Solway Firth in the w
The land area of Scotland is 30,981 square miles, 32% of the area of the United Kingdom. The mainland of Scotland has 6,160 miles of coastline. The morphology of Scotland was formed by the action of tectonic plates, and subsequent erosion arising from glaciation. The major division of Scotland is the Highland Boundary Fault, which separates the land into 'highland' to the north and west, and 'lowland' to the south and east. The Highlands of Scotland are largely mountainous, and form the highest
The main points of the Scottish mainland are: 1. North: Easter Head, Dunnet Head, Caithness 2. East: Keith Inch, Peterhead, Aberdeenshire 3. South: Mull of Galloway, Dumfries and Galloway 4. West: Corrachadh Mòr, Ardnamurchan, Lochaber It is often yet incorrectly stated ...
The total land area of Scotland is 8,023,947 hectares. Grasses and rough grazing account for 67% of the land area, forest and woodland 17%, urban development 8%, crops and fallow 7%, and other agricultural land accounts for 2%.
Scotland contains the most mountainous terrain in Great Britain. Much of the highest uplands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault in the Northwest Highlands and Grampian ranges. The jagged Cuillin, on the Isle of Skye, represents a major mountain range that is
The climate of Scotland is temperate and very changeable, but rarely extreme. Scotland is warmed by the North Atlantic Drift and given the northerly location of the country, experiences much milder conditions than areas on similar latitudes, such as Labrador in Canada—where icebergs are a common feature in winter. Average temperatures are lower than in the rest of Great Britain, with the coldest ever UK temperature of −27.2 °C recorded at Braemar in the Grampian Mountains, on 10 ...
According to the General Register Office for Scotland, the total population of Scotland stood at 5,168,500 in June 2008, an increase of 2.1% since the census of April 2001. Scotland's share of the United Kingdom population has been declining in recent years and stands at just over 8.5% due to differential rates of growth in the home nations. However an increasing birth rate and higher levels of inward migration to Scotland have reversed the decline and contributed to the recent population growth
The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of York between Scotland and England and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway. Exceptions include: the Isle of Man, which having been lost to England in the 14th century is now a crown dependency outside of the United Kingdom, the acquisition of Orkney and Shetland from Norway in 1472, and the permanent recovery of Berwick by England in 1482. Originally an independent country, Scotland joined with