South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate and defined largely by the Indian Ocean on the south, and the ...
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South Asia (or Southern Asia) is the southern part of the continent of Asia. It is also known as Indian subcontinent. It is also known as Indian subcontinent. There are 8 countries in this region.
Southeast Asia, also spelt South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are south of China, south-east of the Indian subcontinent and north-west of Australia.
South Asia is home to several hundred languages, spanning the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. It is home to the third most spoken language in the world, Hindi-Urdu and the sixth most spoken language, Bengali. The languages in the region mostly comprise Indo-European languages and Dravidian languages, and further members of other language families like Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia, is the southeastern part of Asia. There are ten countries in this region. All the countries in Southeast Asia are a part of ASEAN, except for East Timor. Some of the countries are mostly on the Asian mainland; they were formerly called Indochina. The others are only on islands.
- Changes of The Monsoon
- Ideal and Normal Monsoon Rains
- Theories For Mechanism of Monsoon
- Theories For "Bursting"
- Theories For Monsoon Variability
- Impact of Climate Change
- Monsoon Rain Prediction Models
The word monsoon (derived from the Arabic "mausim", meaning "seasonal reversal of winds"), although generally defined as a system of winds characterized by a seasonal reversal of direction,lacks a consistent, detailed definition. Some examples are: 1. The American Meteorological Society calls it a name for seasonal winds, first applied to the winds blowing over the Arabian Sea from the northeast for six months and from the southwest for six months.The term has since been extended to similar winds in other parts of the world. 2. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) describes a monsoon as a tropical and subtropical seasonal reversal in both surface winds and associated precipitation, caused by differential heating between a continental-scale land mass and the adjacent ocean. 3. The India Meteorological Departmentdefines it as the seasonal reversal of the direction of winds along the shores of the Indian Ocean, especially in the Arabian Sea, which blow from the southwes...
Observed initially by sailors in the Arabian Sea traveling between Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, the monsoon can be categorized into two branchesbased on their spread over the subcontinent: 1. Arabian Sea branch 2. Bay of Bengalbranch Alternatively, it can be categorized into two segmentsbased on the direction of rain-bearing winds: 1. Southwest (SW) monsoon 2. Northeast (NE) monsoon[Note 1] Based on the time of year that these winds bring rain to India, the monsoon can also be categorized into two periods: 1. Summer monsoon (May to September) 2. Winter monsoon (October to November) The complexity of the monsoon of South Asia is not completely understood, making it difficult to accurately predict the quantity, timing, and geographic distribution of the accompanying precipitation. These are the most monitored components of the monsoon, and they determine the water availability in India for any given year.
Monsoons typically occur in tropical areas. One area that monsoons impact greatly is India.In India monsoons create an entire season in which the winds reverse completely. The rainfall is a result of the convergence of wind flow from the Bay of Bengal and reverse winds from the South China Sea. The onset of the monsoon occurs over the Bay of Bengal in May, arriving at the Indian Peninsula by June, and then the winds move towards the South China Sea.
Normally, the southwest monsoon can be expected to "burst" onto the western coast of India (near Thiruvananthapuram) at the beginning of June and to cover the entire country by mid-July.Its withdrawal from India typically starts at the beginning of September and finishes by the beginning of October. The northeast monsoon usually "bursts" around 20 October and lasts for about 50 days before withdrawing. However, a rainy monsoon is not necessarily a normal monsoon – that is, one that performs close to statistical averages calculated over a long period. A normal monsoon is generally accepted to be one involving close to the average quantity of precipitation over all the geographical locations under its influence (mean spatial distribution) and over the entire expected time period (mean temporal distribution). Additionally, the arrival date and the departure date of both the southwest and northeast monsoon should be close to the mean dates. The exact criteria for a normal monsoon are de...
Theories of the mechanism of the monsoon primarily try to explain the reasons for the seasonal reversal of winds and the timing of their reversal.
The "bursting"of the monsoon is primarily explained by the jet stream theory and the dynamic theory.
The jet stream effect
The jet stream theory also explains the variability in timing and strength of the monsoon. Timing: A timely northward shift of the subtropical westerly jet at the beginning of summer is critical to the onset of the southwest monsoon over India. If the shift is delayed, so is the southwest monsoon. An early shift results in an early monsoon. Strength:The strength of the southwest monsoon is determined by the strength of the easterly tropical jet over central India. A strong easterly tropical j...
El Niño–Southern Oscillation effect
El Niño is a warm ocean current originating along the coast of Peru that replaces the usual cold Humboldt Current. The warm surface water moving toward the coast of Peru with El Niño is pushed west by the trade winds, thereby raising the temperature of the southern Pacific Ocean. The reverse condition is known as La Niña. Southern Oscillation, a phenomenon first observed by Sir Gilbert Walker, director general of observatories in India, refers to the seesaw relationship of atmospheric pressur...
Indian Ocean dipole effect
Although the ENSO effect was statistically effective in explaining several past droughts in India, in recent decades, its relationship with the Indian monsoon seemed to weaken. For example, the strong ENSO of 1997 did not cause drought in India. However, it was later discovered that, just like ENSO in the Pacific Ocean, a similar seesaw ocean-atmosphere system in the Indian Ocean was also in play. This system was discovered in 1999 and named the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). An index to calculat...
Since 1950s, the South Asian summer monsoon has been exhibiting large changes, especially in terms of droughts and floods. The observed monsoon rainfall indicates a gradual decline over central India, with a reduction of up to 10%. This is primarily due to a weakening monsoon circulation as a result of the rapid warming in the Indian Ocean, and changes in land use and land cover, while the role of aerosols remain elusive. Since the strength of the monsoon is partially dependent on the temperature difference between the ocean and the land, higher ocean temperatures in the Indian Ocean have weakened the moisture bearing winds from the ocean to the land. The reduction in the summer monsoon rainfall have grave consequences over central India because at least 60% of the agriculture in this region is still largely rain-fed. A recent assessment of the monsoonal changes indicate that the land warming has increased during 2002–2014, possibly reviving the strength of the monsoon circulation a...
Since the Great Famine of 1876–1878 in India, various attempts have been made to predict monsoon rainfall.At least five prediction models exist.
The monsoon is the primary delivery mechanism for fresh water in the Indian subcontinent. As such, it affects the environment (and associated flora, fauna, and ecosystems), agriculture, society, hydro-power production, and geography of the subcontinent (like the availability of fresh water in water bodies and the underground water table), with all of these factors cumulatively contributing to the health of the economy of affected countries. The monsoon turns large parts of India from semi-deserts into green grasslands. See photos taken only three months apart in the Western Ghats.