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  1. The least common consonant in the Russian alphabet. X : 0.15% 32 Ё: 0.20% In written Russian, ё is often replaced by е . For more information, see Vowels. Q : 0.095% 33 Ъ: 0.02% Ъ used to be a very common letter in the Russian alphabet.

    • Cyrillic
    • Alphabet
  2. Russian is written using the Russian alphabet of the Cyrillic script; it distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without—the so-called "soft" and "hard" sounds. Almost every consonant has a hard or soft counterpart, and the distinction is a prominent feature of the language.

    • ts
    • 150 million (2012), L2 speakers: 110 million (2012)
  3. The Russian Manual Alphabet (RMA) is used for fingerspelling in Russian Sign Language. Like many other manual alphabets, the Russian Manual Alphabet bears similarities to the French Manual Alphabet. However, it was adapted to account for the letters of the Cyrillic alphabet found in the Russian written language. It is a one-handed alphabet.

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    • Latin in East Slavic Languages
    • Some Projects of The 19th Century
    • Soviet Project
    • Cases of Latin Use in The Post-Soviet Period

    The first cases of using Latin to write East Slavic languages were found in the documents of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Commonwealthin the 16th — 18th centuries. Preferably, these recordings were made in the Old Ukrainian language. In essence, the ukrainian and belarusian languages were written using the rules of Polish orthography. In the 17th century in the Moscow region it became fashionable to make short notes in Russian in the letters of the Latin alphabet. This practice was especially widespread in the 1680s — 1690s. Known records of the Russian language by foreign travelers: a French dictionary-phrasebook of the 16th century in the Latin alphabet and a dictionary-diary of Richard James, mostly in Latin graphics (influenced by the orthography of various Western European languages), but interspersed with letters of the Greek and Russian alphabets. In the 19th — first half of the 20th century, Polish Latin was used to convey the Belarusian language. The Belarusian lang...

    In 1833, a brochure by an unknown author appeared in Moscow: "New improved letters of the Russian alphabet" or "Орыt wedenія novыh russkih liter". In it, the author proposed the following alphabet for the Russian language: Aa, Bb, Cc (це), Dd, Ee, Ff, Gg, Hh, Iiĭ, Jj (же), Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Pp, Rr, Ss, Tt, Uu, Vv, Zz, Чч, Шш, Ыы, Юю, Яя. In 1842 Kodinsky proposed in the book "Simplification of Russian grammar" the Latin alphabet for the Russian language. In 1857 Kodinsky published the book "Transformation and simplification of n spelling", in which he again proposed to introduce Latin. The proposed Kodin alphabet was a mixture of Romanian, Hungarian and French Latin: Aa, Bb, Cc, Dd, Ee, Ff, Gg, Hh, Ii, Jj, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Pp, Qq, Rr, Ss, Tt, Uu, Üü, Vv, Xx, Yy, Zz. There were quite complex rules of orthography: é (ё), q (к); c (к) at the end of words, before consonants and not palatalized vowels, in the same sense digraph ch (ruchi); c (ч) before palatalized vowels (but compare: n...

    In 1919, the Scientific Department of the People's Commissariat, not without the participation of People's Commissar AV Lunacharsky, spoke "... about the desirability of introducing the Latin font for all nationalities inhabiting the territory of the Republic ... which is a logical step on the path to which Russia has already entered, adopting a new calendar style and metric system of weights and measures. This would be the completion of the alphabetic reform, once performed by Peter I, and would be in connection with the last orthographic reform. In the 1920s and 1930s, a wave of Latinization of the writingof non-Russian peoples swept across the country, and Latin was reduced to the absolute. The territory of the USSR, where the Cyrillic alphabet (Russian) was used, was already a kind of wedge, because Latin was used in the north and east of Siberia (Komi, Yakutia). In the south of the country (Central Asia), Latin was also used. The same in the Volga region (Tatar ASSR) and other...

    The original way of transmitting the Russian language in Latin was proposed in 2005 by Lyudmila Petrushevskaya, calling it "Nikolaitsa" in honor of her grandfather, the linguist N.F. Yakovlev. On August 25, 2017, Vladimir Petrov, a deputy of the Legislative Assembly of the Leningrad Region, addressed the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Russian Academy of Sciences with a request to create a second Russian alphabet based on the Latin alphabet. The deputy asked officials and academics to study the arguments in favor of creating a single Latin alphabet of the Russian language, as well as its parallel implementation for use and study in Russian educational institutions.

  5. 2. While e is an allophone that occurs in certain contexts, these are the exception rather than the rule. Canonically the sound is unambiguously ɛ or jɛ, not e or je; nobody would ever list the Russian alphabet pronouncing the latter by themselves. I edited several entries in the table accordingly. BlackNBlue 19:36, 30 November 2020 (UTC) []

    • Standard Russian
    • Names
    • Grammar

    Standard Russian is also called modern literary Russian (Современный русский литературный язык). It first appeared at the beginning of the 18th century. Peter the Great was then working to make the state more modern. Standard Russian grew out of the dialect of Russian that was spoken by people in and around Moscow. In some ways, Standard Russian was also like the Russian used in government offices in earlier centuries. Mikhail Lomonosov wrote the first book on Russian grammar in 1755. The Russian Academy of Sciences published the first full dictionary of Russian in 1783. The grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation of Russian became stable and were standardized at the end of the 18th century and during the 19th century. That was called the "Golden Age" of Russian literaturebecause it was a good period for the subject, which became very famous across the world. All of Russia began to use Russian as the language of literature, education, and official communication. Until the 20th century...

    In Russian, a person's name has three parts: the first name, the second name and the family name. Parents choose the first name for their child. Some common Russian names for boys are Ivan, Vladimir, Mikhail and Nikolai. Some common Russian names for girls are Anna, Anastasia, Svetlana and Yekaterina. The second name is the patronymic (Russian: otchestvo) and comes from one's father's first name. For example, a boy whose father is Ivan would havae as patronymic is Ivanovich. If a boy's father is Nikolai, his patronymic is Nikolaevich. If a girl's father is Ivan, her patronymic is Ivanovna. If her father is Nikolai, her patronymic is Nikolaevna. The patronymic of a boy ends with -ovich or -evich. The patronymic of a girl ends with -ovna or -evna. Boys have the same family name as their fathers. Girls use their father's family name but an -a is added to the end of the name. A man whose family name is Romanov would have a son with the family name Romanov and a daughter with the family...


    Like Latin, Greek, and German, Russian has a case system. In Russian, it applies to nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals and participles with a set of word endings (sounds/letters attached to the ends of words) that show the grammatical roles of words in a sentence. Because the grammatical roles are shown by the endings, word orderis freer in than in English. There are six cases in Russian. The nominative case, the form listed in the dictionary, is used for the subject of the sentence. The g...

    Gender and number

    In Russian, nouns have one of three genders: masculine, feminine, or neutral. This is the same for languages like French, Spanish, etc. Masculine nouns usually end in consonants, neutral nouns usually end in -o or -e, and feminine nouns usually end in -a or -я. The plural acts like a fourth genderbecause gender does not change plural words.


    In Russian, an adjective must agree with the word that it describes in gender, case and number. In the nominative case, adjectives that describe feminine words usually end in -ая or -яя. Those that describe masculine words usually end in -ый, -ий or -ой. Those that describe neuter words usually end in -ое or -ее. Those that describe plural words usually end in -ые or -ие. The endings change depending on case.

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