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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › UkraineUkraine - Wikipedia

    Ukraine ( Ukrainian: Україна, romanized : Ukraïna, pronounced [ʊkrɐˈjinɐ] ( listen)) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest European country after Russia, [11] covering approximately 600,000 square kilometres (230,000 sq mi), [a] and has a population of around 40 million people.

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    • Official Language
    • The Largest Cities of Ukraine
    • Name Origin
    • History
    • Russian-occupation of Crimea
    • Russian Invasion
    • Presidents of Ukraine
    • Related Pages

    The official language of Ukraine is Ukrainian (Ukrainian: українська мова, [ukrajin’s’ka mova]). In the 2001 census, about 29% of people in Ukraine said that they consider Russian to be their main language. These two East Slavic languagesare similar in some ways but different in other ways.

    The largest cities in Ukraine are: 1. Kyiv (from the late 9th century was the capital of Kyivan Rus; the capital of Ukraine since the restoration of the independent Ukrainian state in 1919) 2. Kharkiv(was the capital of Ukraine in 1919—1934) 3. Dnipro 4. Odesa 5. Zaporizhia 6. Lviv

    The name "Ukraine" (u-krayina) has usually been interpreted as "edge" or "borderland", but this an alternative interpretation as "territory" has been proposed. Language specialists are still searching for evidence of the history of the meaning of the word. It was first used in reference to a core part of the territory of Kyivan Rus in the 12th cent...

    Ancient times

    Many different tribes lived on the territory of modern Ukraine since pre-historical times. Most historians believe that the Great Steppe at the North of the Black Sea was a homeland of all Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. Some believe it was also the birthplace of the whole European population. Wends, Goths, Huns, Sclaveni, Avars, and other tribes and tribal groups fought among themselves, joined unions, terminated, and assimilated each other. By the middle of the 4th century AD, Ant...

    Kyivan Rus

    Kyivan Rus, is the medieval state of Eastern Slavs. Established by the Slavic with the help of the Varangian squads whose force was used to integrate separate tribes and their lands into one powerful state. Varangian princes, who ruled Rus from its first years were gradually assimilated by natives, but the dynastystarted by semy-legendary Ririk survived and continued to govern their separate principalities even after the collapse of Rus. At an early stage of its existence Rus destroyed such p...

    Cossackian State

    At the end of the 15th century, the groups of warriors who called themselves Cossacks appeared on the territory between the borders of Lithuania, Muscovy, and the Crimea, in the "wild steppes" of Zaporizhia. From the 16th century, the Sich became their military centre. Zaporizhian Cossacks participated in the wars on the side of the Commonwealth: the Livonian War (1558-1583), the Polish-Muscovite War (1605-1618), Khotyn war (1620-1621), and Smolensk war (1632-1634). Cossacks also organized th...

    In March 2014, Russia occupied Crimea, made a pseudo-referendum which proclaimed Crimea independence and annexed it. Most countries did not recognize the referendum. The EU, OSCE, USA and Ukraine demanded that Crimea be returned. Several countries sought to use economic sanctions to punish Russia's leaders for this. After some conflicts, the region...

    On 24 February 2022, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced the invasion and attack on Ukraine.Russia invaded Ukraine from the North, East, South, from the Black Sea and from the air (having launched hundred of missiles). Many people suffered, and people were hiding out in subway systems underground. Poland was allowing refugees into the countr...

    Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (1991—1994)
    Leonid Danylovych Kuchma (1994—2005)
    Victor Yushchenko(2005—2010)
    Victor Yanukovych(2010—2014)
    • Russian, Romanian, Polish, Slovak, Hungarian
    • 77.8% Ukrainians, 17.3% Russians, 4.9% others and unspecified
  3. de.wikipedia.org › wiki › UkraineUkraine – Wikipedia

    Die Ukraine ( [ ukʁaˈiːnə] oder [ uˈkʁaɪ̯nə ]; [5] ukrainisch Україна Ukrajina [ ukrɑˈjinɑ ]) ist ein Staat in Osteuropa mit mehr als 40 Millionen Einwohnern. Mit einer Fläche von 603.700 Quadratkilometern [6] ist sie nach Russland der zweitgrößte Staat Europas und der größte, dessen Gebiet zur Gänze innerhalb des ...

    • Prehistory
    • Middle Ages
    • Early Modern Period
    • Modern History
    • National Historiography
    • See Also
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    Settlement in Ukraine by members of the genus Homo has been documented into distant prehistory. The Neanderthals are associated with the Molodova archaeological sites (45,000–43,000 BC) which include a mammoth bone dwelling. Gravettian settlements dating to 32,000 BC have been unearthed and studied in the Buran-Kaya cave site of the Crimean Mountai...

    Kievan Rus'

    In 882, Kyiv was founded by the Varangian noble Oleh (Oleg), who started the long period of rule of the Rurikid princes. During this time, several Slavic tribes were native to Ukraine, including the Polans, the Drevlyans, the Severians, the Ulichs, the Tiverians, the White Croats and the Dulebes. Situated on lucrative trade routes, Kyiv among the Polans quickly prospered as the center of the powerful Slavic state of Kievan Rus. In 941 AD, the Prince of Kyiv invaded the Byzantine Empire but wa...

    Christianity

    While Christianity had made headway into the territory of modern Ukraine before the first ecumenical council, the Council of Nicaea (325) (particularly along the Black Sea coast) and, in western Ukraine during the time of the Empire of Great Moravia, the formal governmental acceptance of Christianity in Rus' occurred in 988. The major promoter of the Christianization of Kievan Rus' was the Grand-Duke Vladimir the Great (Volodymyr). His Christian interest was midwifed by his grandmother, Princ...

    Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia

    A successor state to the Kievan Rus' on part of the territory of today's Ukraine was the Principality of Galicia-Volhynia. Previously, Vladimir the Great had established the cities of Halych and Ladomir as regional capitals. This state was based upon the Dulebe, Tiverian and White Croattribes. The state was ruled by the descendants of Yaroslav the Wise and Vladimir Monomakh. For a brief period, the state was ruled by a Hungarian nobleman. Battles with the neighbouring states of Poland and Lit...

    Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

    After the Union of Lublin in 1569 and the formation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Ukraine fell under the Polish administration, becoming part of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. The period immediately following the creation of the Commonwealth saw a huge revitalisation in colonisation efforts. Many new cities and villages were founded & links between different Ukrainian regions, such as Galicia and Volynwere greatly extended. New schools spread the ideas of the Renaissance; Polish...

    Cossack era

    The 1648 Ukrainian Cossack (Kozak) rebellion or Khmelnytsky Uprising, which started an era known as the Ruin (in Polish history as The Deluge), undermined the foundations and stability of the Commonwealth. The nascent Cossack state, the Cossack Hetmanate, usually viewed as precursor of Ukraine, found itself in a three-sided military and diplomatic rivalry with the Ottoman Turks, who controlled the Tatars to the south, the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania, and the Tsardom of Muscovyto the...

    Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary

    During subsequent decades, Tsarist rule over central Ukraine gradually replaced 'protection'. Sporadic Cossack uprisings were now aimed at the Russian authorities, but eventually petered out by the late 18th century, following the destruction of entire Cossack hosts. After the Partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793 and 1795, the extreme west of Ukraine fell under the control of the Austrians, with the rest becoming a part of the Russian Empire. As a result of the Russo-Turkish Wars, the Ottoman E...

    17th and 18th-century Ukraine

    Ukraine emerges as the concept of a nation, and the Ukrainians as a nationality, with the Ukrainian National Revival in the mid-18th century, in the wake of the peasant revolt of 1768/1769 and the eventual partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Galicia fell to the Austrian Empire, and the rest of Ukraine to the Russian Empire. While right-bank Ukraine belonged to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until late 1793, left-bank Ukraine had been incorporated into Tsardom of Russia in 166...

    Independence

    With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine became an independent state, formalised with a referendum in December 1991. On 21 January 1990, over 300,000 Ukrainians organized a human chain for Ukrainian independence between Kyiv and Lviv. Ukraine officially declared itself an independent country on 24 August 1991, when the communist Supreme Soviet (parliament) of Ukraine proclaimed that Ukraine would no longer follow the laws of USSR and only the laws of the Ukrainian SSR, de facto...

    The scholarly study of Ukraine's history emerged from romantic impulses in the late 19th century. The outstanding leaders were Volodymyr Antonovych (1834–1908), based in Kyiv, and his student Mykhailo Hrushevsky (1866–1934). For the first time full-scale scholarly studies based on archival sources, modern research techniques, and modern historical ...

    Surveys and reference

    1. Encyclopedia of Ukraine (University of Toronto Press, 1984–93) 5 vol; from Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, partly online as the Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine. 2. Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia. ed by Volodymyr Kubijovyč; University of Toronto Press. 1963; 1188pp[ISBN missing] 3. Bilinsky, Yaroslav The Second Soviet Republic: The Ukraine after World War II (Rutgers UP, 1964)[ISBN missing] 4. Hrushevsky, Mykhailo. A History of Ukraine(1986 [1941]). 5. Hrushevsky, Mykhailo. Histo...

    Topical studies

    1. Kononenko, Konstantyn. Ukraine and Russia: A History of the Economic Relations between Ukraine and Russia, 1654–1917 (Marquette University Press 1958)[ISBN missing] 2. Luckyj, George S. Towards an Intellectual History of Ukraine: An Anthology of Ukrainian Thought from 1710 to 1995.(1996) 3. Shkandrij, Myroslav. Ukrainian Nationalism: Politics, Ideology, and Literature, 1929–1956 (Yale University Press; 2014) 331 pages; Studies the ideology and legacy of the Organization of Ukrainian Nation...

    1930s, World War II

    1. Applebaum, Anne. Red Famine: Stalin's War on Ukraine (2017); 496 pp online review 2. Boshyk, Yuri (1986). Ukraine During World War II: History and Its Aftermath. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. ISBN 0-920862-37-3. 3. Berkhoff, Karel C., Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine Under Nazi Rule.Harvard U. Press, 2004. 448 pp. 4. Brandon, Ray, and Wendy Lower, eds. The Shoah in Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization. (2008). 378 pp. online review 5. Conquest, Robert. The H...

    Media related to History of Ukraineat Wikimedia Commons
    Ukrainian history overview published in Den'(in Ukrainian).
  4. sco.wikipedia.org › wiki › UkraineUkraine - Wikipedia

    Ukraine ( Ukrainian: Україна, romanised: Ukraïna [ʊkrɐˈjinɐ] ), whiles cried the Ukraine, [8] is a sovereign state in Eastren Europe, [9] mairchit bi Roushie tae the east an northeast; Belaroushie tae the northwast; Poland, Hungary, an Slovakie tae the wast; Romanie an Moldovae tae the soothwast; an the Black Sea an Sea o Azov tae ...

  5. L'Ukraine est un pays d' Europe orientale. Elle partage ses frontières terrestres avec sept pays limitrophes : à l'ouest la Pologne, la Slovaquie et la Hongrie ; au sud-ouest la Roumanie et la Moldavie ; à l'est et au nord-est la Russie ; au nord la Biélorussie.

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