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  1. › wiki › Vulgar_LatinVulgar Latin - Wikipedia

    The Vulgar Latin vowel shifts caused the merger of several case endings in the nominal and adjectival declensions. Some of the causes include: the loss of final m, the merger of ă with ā, and the merger of ŭ with ō (see tables). Thus, by the 5th century, the number of case contrasts had been drastically reduced.

  2. Vulgar Latin, or Common Latin, is one of the two types of Latin.Latin is an old language that was spoken by the Romans.Vulgar Latin is not spoken anymore, but its many dialects eventually became what are now Romance languages (such as Italian, Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Romanian).

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    What does the word vulgar mean in Latin?

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    • What Was Vulgar Latin?
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    The name "vulgar" simply means "folk", derived from the Latin word vulgaris, meaning "of people". "Vulgar Latin" has a variety of meanings: 1. Variation within Latin (socially, geographically, and chronologically) that differs from the Classical literary standard in an age when most people were illiterate and the primary method of language transmission between people was oral. This typically excludes the language of the more educated upper classes, which, although it does include variation, comes closest to the literary standard. 2. The spoken Latin of the Roman Empire. Classical Latin represents the literary register of Latin, based on the model of ancient literary Greek. It represented a selection from a hypothetical variety of spoken forms.[citation needed] The Latin brought by Roman soldiers to Gaul, Iberia or Dacia was probably not identical to the Latin of Cicero, and differed from it in vocabulary, and later in syntax and grammar as well.[1] By this definition, Vulgar Latin w...

    Because the daily speech of Latin speakers was not transcribed, Vulgar Latin can only be studied indirectly. Knowledge of Vulgar Latin comes from three chief sources: First, the comparative method reconstructs the underlying forms from the attested Romance languages, and notes where they differ from Classical Latin; second, various prescriptive grammar texts from the Late Latin period condemn linguistic errors that Latin speakers were liable to commit, giving us an idea of how Latin was spoken; third, the solecisms and non-Classical usages that occasionally are found in Late Latin texts also reveal, in part, the author's spoken language.[2] Some literary works written in a lower register of Latin also provide a glimpse into the world of early Vulgar Latin. The works of Plautus and Terence, being comedies with many characters who were slaves, preserve basilectal Latin features, as does the recorded speech of freedmen in the Cena Trimalchionis by Petronius Arbiter. For many centuries...

    Certain words from Classical Latin were dropped from the vocabulary. Classical equus, "horse", was consistently replaced, by caballus "nag" (but note Romanian iapă, Sardinian èbba, Spanish yegua, Catalan euga and Portuguese égua all meaning "mare" and deriving from Classical equa). A sample of words that are exclusively Classical, and those that were productive in Romance, is to be found in the table to the right. The vocabulary changes affected even the basic grammatical particles of Latin; there are many that vanish without a trace in Romance, such as an, at, autem, donec, enim, ergo, etiam, haud, igitur, ita, nam, postquam, quidem, quin, quod, quoque, sed, utrum and vel.[14] Verbs with prefixed prepositions frequently displaced simple forms. The number of words formed by such suffixes as -bilis, -arius, -itare and -icaregrew apace. These changes occurred frequently to avoid irregular forms or to regularise genders. On the other hand, since Vulgar Latin and Latin proper were for m...

    [edit] Evidence of changes

    Evidence of phonological changes can be seen in the late 3rd century Appendix Probi, a collection of glosses prescribingcorrect classical Latin forms for certain vulgar forms. These glosses describe: 1. a process of syncope, the loss of unstressed vowels ("masculus non masclus"); 2. the merger between long /e/ and short /i/ ("vinea non vinia"); 3. the levelling of the distinction between /o/ and /u/ ("coluber non colober") and /e/ and /i/ ("dimidius non demedius"); 4. regularization of irregu...

    [edit] Consonants

    Significant sound changesaffected the consonants of Vulgar Latin: Apocope 1. Final -t, which occurred frequently in verb conjugations, and final -s, in nouns, were dropped. 2. The scansion in Latin poetry suggests that the letter -m may have been pronounced very softly in classical Latin, being either voiceless or merely a silent letter that marked the nasalisation of the vowel which preceded it. It continued, however, to be consistently written in the literary language. In Vulgar Latin, thes...

    [edit] Stressed vowels

    One profound change that affected Vulgar Latin was the reorganisation of its vowel system. Classical Latin had five short vowels, ă, ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, ŭ, and five long vowels, ā, ē, ī, ō, ū, each of which was an individual phoneme (see the table in the right, for their likely pronunciation in IPA), and four diphthongs, ae, oe, au and eu (five according to some authors, including ui). There were also long and short versions of y, representing the rounded vowel [y(ː)] in Greek borrowings, which however...

    [edit] The Romance articles

    It is difficult to place the point in which the definite article, absent in Latin but present in some form in all of the Romance languages, arose; largely because the highly colloquial speech in which it arose was seldom written down until the daughter languages had strongly diverged; most surviving texts in early Romance show the articles fully developed. Definite articles formerly were demonstrative pronouns or adjectives; compare the fate of the Latin demonstrative adjective ille, illa, (i...

    [edit] Gender: loss of the neuter

    The three grammatical genders of Classical Latin were replaced by a two-gender system in most Romance languages. In Latin, gender is partly a matter of inflection, i.e. there are different declensional paradigms associated with the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter, and partly a matter of agreement, i.e. nouns of a certain gender require forms of the same gender in adjectives and pronouns associated with them. The loss of final consonants led to a remodelling of the gender system. In Cl...

    [edit] The loss of the noun case system

    The sound changes that were occurring in Vulgar Latin made the noun case system of Classical Latin harder to sustain, and ultimately spelled doom for the system of Latin declensions. As a result of the untenability of the noun case system after these phonetic changes, vulgar Latin moved from being a markedly synthetic language to a more analytic language where word order is a necessary element of syntax. Consider what the loss of final /m/, the loss of phonemic vowel length, and the sound shi...

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  4. Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech"), also Colloquial Latin, or Common Romance (particularly in the late stage), was a range of non-standard sociolects of Latin spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire. It is distinct from Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the ...

  5. › wiki › VulgarVulgar - Wikipedia

    Vulgar is a Latin word meaning "common" or "pertaining to ordinary people.". Language. Vulgar or common language, the vernacular speech of a region or a people; Language use characterised by vulgarity, see Vulgarism and Vulgarity § Language

  6. To, who argues that Vulgar Latin is an Italic language separate from Latin, because it has different syntax from (literary) Latin: Latin is distinguished from other Italic languages not by syntax, but by consonant development. Vulgar Latin shows the same consonants as Latin, just with a few sound changes added on.

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