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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Western_AsiaWestern Asia - Wikipedia

    Western Asia covers an area of 5,994,935 km 2 (2,314,657 sq mi), with a population of around 313 million. Out of the 21 countries located fully or partly within the region, 13 are a part of the Arab world. The most populous countries in Western Asia are Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Yemen

    • West Asian, Western Asian
    • 313,428,000 (2018) (9th)
  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AsiaAsia - Wikipedia

    The Islamic Caliphate's defeats of the Byzantine and Persian empires led to West Asia and southern parts of Central Asia and western parts of South Asia under its control during its conquests of the 7th century. The Mongol Empire conquered a large part of Asia in the 13th century, an area extending from China to Europe.

  3. Western Asia (or Southwest Asia) is the part of Asia that includes the Middle East. Territories. Southwest Asia in most uses includes: Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Cyprus Georgia Indonesia Iraq Iran Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Malaysia Oman Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria Turkey United Arab Emirates Yemen

  4. The UNESCO has designated 95 World Heritage Sites in 18 countries of Western Asia: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Yemen. While Egypt is partially in Western Asia, its World Heritage Sites are listed under Africa instead. One site is located in Jerusalem,. Kuwait is the only country in the region that does not have any World Heritage Sites. Arabian Oryx Sanctuary was

    Site
    Location
    Criteria
    Area Ha (acre)
    Sharqiyah and Batinah Regions, Oman ...
    Cultural: (v)
    1,456 (3,600); buffer zone 16,404 ...
    Al-Ahsa Governorate, Saudi Arabia ...
    Cultural: (iii) (iv) (v)
    8,544 (21,110); buffer zone 21,556 ...
    Al Madinah Province, Saudi Arabia ...
    Cultural: (ii) (iii)
    1,621 (4,010); buffer zone 1,659 (4,100)
    Al Zubarah Archaeological Site
    Madinat ash Shamal, Qatar 25°58′41″N ...
    Cultural: (iii) (iv) (v)
    416 (1,030); buffer zone 7,196 (17,780)
  5. ja.wikipedia.org › wiki › 西アジア西アジア - Wikipedia

    • 概要
    • 地域
    • 言語
    • 関連項目

    一般に国家としては、アフガニスタン、イラン、イラク、トルコ、キプロス、シリア、レバノン、イスラエル、ヨルダン、サウジアラビア、クウェート、バーレーン、カタール、アラブ首長国連邦、オマーン、イエメン、パレスチナおよびエジプトの一部がここに属す。また、黒海とカスピ海の間にある(コーカサス山脈の南側)旧ソ連のアゼルバイジャン、アルメニア、ジョージア(グルジア)を含めることも多く、これらの国々を含めない場合は西南アジアと呼んで区別することもある。国連の区分ではアフガニスタンとイランは南アジアに含まれる。 アフガニスタンは、マザーリシャリーフを中心とする北部では中央アジア最南端の宗教都市がありウズベキスタンと関係が深い。ヘラートを中心とする北西部ではイランにまたがるホラーサーン地方の一部で、イランと関係が深い。カーブルを中心とする南部はカイバル峠を通じて南アジアのパキスタン、インドと繋がりが深い。しかし、普通は19世紀にイギリスの統治下に入ったインド亜大陸を南アジア、北のロシアと清の支配下にあった地域を中央アジアと呼ぶ。アフガニスタンは両国の緩衝帯として独立国のまま残された。

    西アジアに含まれる国 1. イラン(国連の区分では南アジア) 2. アフガニスタン(国連の区分では南アジア) 3. サウジアラビア 4. イラク 5. アラブ首長国連邦 6. カタール 7. バーレーン 8. クウェート 9. Template:OMNKO 10. イエメン 11. レバノン 12. シリア 13. ヨルダン 14. パレスチナ 15. イスラエル(パレスチナ問題のため各国際競技連盟の下部組織はヨーロッパに所属している。) 16. トルコ(ボスポラス海峡より西側はヨーロッパに属し、ヨーロッパに含まれる事もある。) 17. キプロス(ヨーロッパに含まれることもありEUにも加盟している。) 18. アゼルバイジャン(旧ソ連諸国のためヨーロッパに含まれる場合もある。) 19. ジョージア(旧ソ連諸国のためヨーロッパに含まれる場合もある。) 20. アルメニア(旧ソ連諸国のためヨーロッパに含まれる場合もある。) 21. エジプト(スエズ運河より東側のシナイ半島部分が西アジアである。)

    アフロ・アジア語族 :アラビア語、ヘブライ語など
    インド・ヨーロッパ語族 :ペルシャ語、クルド語、アルメニア語など
    カフカス諸語:グルジア語など
    テュルク諸語:トルコ語、アゼルバイジャン語など
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    Who are the people of Western Asia?

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    • Early European Exploration of Asia
    • Portuguese and Spanish Trade and Colonization in Asia
    • Dutch Trade and Colonization in Asia
    • British in India
    • France in Indochina
    • Russia and "The Great Game"
    • Western European and Russian Intrusions Into China
    • U.S. Imperialism in Asia
    • World War I: Changes in Imperialism
    • Japan

    European exploration of Asia started in ancient Roman times along the Silk Road. Knowledge of lands as distant as China were held by the Romans. Trade with India through the Roman Egyptian Red Sea ports was significant in the first centuries of the Common Era.

    Portuguese monopoly over trade in the Indian Ocean and Asia

    In 1509, the Portuguese under Francisco de Almeida won the decisive battle of Diu against a joint Mamlukand Arab fleet sent to expel the Portuguese of the Arabian Sea. The victory enabled Portugal to implement its strategy of controlling the Indian Ocean. Early in the 16th century Afonso de Albuquerque (left) emerged as the Portuguese colonial viceroy most instrumental in consolidating Portugal's holdings in Africa and in Asia. He understood that Portugal could wrest commercial supremacy from...

    Decline of Portugal's Asian empire since the 17th century

    The lucrative trade was vastly expanded when the Portuguese began to export slaves from Africa in 1541; however, over time, the rise of the slave trade left Portugal over-extended, and vulnerable to competition from other Western European powers. Envious of Portugal's control of trade routes, other Western European nations—mainly the Netherlands, France, and England—began to send in rival expeditions to Asia. In 1642, the Dutch drove the Portuguese out of the Gold Coastin Africa, the source o...

    Holy wars

    The arrival of the Portuguese and Spanish and their holy wars against Muslim states in the Malayan–Portuguese war, Spanish–Moro conflict and Castilian Warinflamed religious tensions and turned Southeast Asia into an arena of conflict between Muslims and Christians. The Brunei Sultanate's capital at Kota Batu was assaulted by Governor Sande who led the 1578 Spanish attack. The word "savages" in Spanish, cafres, was from the word "infidel" in Arabic - Kafir, and was used by the Spanish to refer...

    Rise of Dutch control over Asian trade in the 17th century

    The Portuguese decline in Asia was accelerated by attacks on their commercial empire by the Dutch and the English, which began a global struggle over the empire in Asia that lasted until the end of the Seven Years' War in 1763. The Netherlands revolt against Spanish rulefacilitated Dutch encroachment on the Portuguese monopoly over South and East Asian trade. The Dutch looked on Spain's trade and colonies as potential spoils of war. When the two crowns of the Iberian peninsula were joined in...

    Dutch New Imperialism in Asia

    The company was in almost constant conflict with the English; relations were particularly tense following the Amboyna Massacre in 1623. During the 18th century, Dutch East India Company possessions were increasingly focused on the East Indies. After the fourth war between the United Provinces and England (1780–1784), the company suffered increasing financial difficulties. In 1799, the company was dissolved, commencing official colonisation of the East Indies. During the era of New Imperialism...

    Portuguese, French, and British competition in India

    The English sought to stake out claims in India at the expense of the Portuguese dating back to the Elizabethan era. In 1600, Queen Elizabeth I incorporated the English East India Company (later the British East India Company), granting it a monopoly of trade from the Cape of Good Hope eastward to the Strait of Magellan. In 1639, it acquired Madrason the east coast of India, where it quickly surpassed Portuguese Goa as the principal European trading centre on the Indian Subcontinent. Through...

    Collapse of Mughal India

    The British East India Company, although still in direct competition with French and Dutch interests until 1763, was able to extend its control over almost the whole of India in the century following the subjugation of Bengal at the 1757 Battle of Plassey. The British East India Company made great advances at the expense of the Mughal Empire. The reign of Aurangzeb had marked the height of Mughal power. By 1690 Mughal territorial expansion reached its greatest extent encompassing the entire I...

    From Company to Crown

    Aside from defeating the French during the Seven Years' War, Robert Clive, the leader of the Company in India, defeated a key Indian ruler of Bengal at the decisive Battle of Plassey (1757), a victory that ushered in the beginning of a new period in Indian history, that of informal British rule. While still nominally the sovereign, the Mughal Indian emperor became more and more of a puppet ruler, and anarchy spread until the company stepped into the role of policeman of India. The transition...

    France, which had lost its empire to the British by the end of the 18th century, had little geographical or commercial basis for expansion in Southeast Asia. After the 1850s, French imperialism was initially impelled by a nationalistic need to rival the United Kingdom and was supported intellectually by the notion that French culture was superior to that of the people of Annam (Vietnam), and its mission civilisatrice—or its "civilizing mission" of the Annamese through their assimilation to French culture and the Catholic religion. The pretext for French expansionism in Indochina was the protection of French religious missions in the area, coupled with a desire to find a southern route to China through Tonkin, the European name for a region of northern Vietnam. French religious and commercial interests were established in Indochina as early as the 17th century, but no concerted effort at stabilizing the French position was possible in the face of British strength in the Indian Ocean...

    Tsarist Russia is not often regarded as a colonial power such as the United Kingdom or France because of the manner of Russian expansions: unlike the United Kingdom, which expanded overseas, the Russian empire grew from the centre outward by a process of accretion, like the United States. In the 19th century, Russian expansion took the form of a struggle of an effectively landlocked country for access to a warm water port. Historian Michael Khodarkovsky describes Tsarist Russia as a "hybrid empire" that combined elements of continental and colonial empires. While the British were consolidating their hold on India, Russian expansion had moved steadily eastward to the Pacific, then toward the Middle East. In the early 19th century it succeeded in conquering the South Caucasus and Dagestan from Qajar Iran following the Russo-Persian War (1804–13), the Russo-Persian War (1826–28) and the out coming treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay, giving Russia direct borders with both Persia's as...

    The 16th century brought many Jesuit missionaries to China, such as Matteo Ricci, who established missions where Western science was introduced, and where Europeans gathered knowledge of Chinese society, history, culture, and science. During the 18th century, merchants from Western Europe came to China in increasing numbers. However, merchants were confined to Guangzhou and the Portuguese colony of Macau, as they had been since the 16th century. European traders were increasingly irritated by what they saw as the relatively high customs duties they had to pay and by the attempts to curb the growing import trade in opium. By 1800, its importation was forbidden by the imperial government. However, the opium trade continued to boom. Early in the 19th century, serious internal weaknesses developed in the Qing dynasty that left China vulnerable to Western, Meiji period Japanese, and Russian imperialism. In 1839, China found itself fighting the First Opium War with Britain. China was defe...

    Some Americans in the Nineteenth Century advocated for the annexation of Taiwan from China. Aboriginals on Taiwan often attacked and massacred shipwrecked western sailors. In 1867, during the Rover incident, Taiwanese aborigines attacked shipwrecked American sailors, killing the entire crew. They subsequently defeated a retaliatory expedition by the American militaryand killed another American during the battle. As the United States emerged as a new imperial power in the Pacific and Asia, one of the two oldest Western imperialist powers in the regions, Spain, was finding it increasingly difficult to maintain control of territories it had held in the regions since the 16th century. In 1896, a widespread revolt against Spanish rule broke out in the Philippines. Meanwhile, the recent string of U.S. territorial gains in the Pacific posed an even greater threat to Spain's remaining colonial holdings. As the U.S. continued to expand its economic and military power in the Pacific, it decla...

    World War I brought about the fall of several empires in Europe. This had repercussions around the world. The defeated Central Powers included Germany and the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Germany lost all of its colonies in Asia. German New Guinea, a part of Papua New Guinea, became administered by Australia. German possessions and concessions in China, including Qingdao, became the subject of a controversy during the Paris Peace Conference when the Beiyang government in China agreed to cede these interests to Japan, to the anger of many Chinese people. Although the Chinese diplomats refused to sign the agreement, these interests were ceded to Japanwith the support of the United States and the United Kingdom. Turkey gave up her provinces; Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia (now Iraq) came under French and British control as League of Nations Mandates. The discovery of petroleum first in Iranand then in the Arab lands in the interbellum provided a new focus for activity on the part of the...

    In 1641, all Westerners were thrown out of Japan. For the next two centuries, Japan was free from Western contact, except for at the port of Nagasaki, which Japan allowed Dutch merchant vessels to enter on a limited basis. Japan's freedom from Western contact ended on 8 July 1853, when Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy sailed a squadron of black-hulled warships into Edo (modern Tokyo) harbor. The Japanese told Perry to sail to Nagasaki but he refused. Perry sought to present a letter from U.S. President Millard Fillmore to the emperor which demanded concessions from Japan. Japanese authorities responded by stating that they could not present the letter directly to the emperor, but scheduled a meeting on 14 July with a representative of the emperor. On 14 July, the squadron sailed towards the shore, giving a demonstration of their cannon's firepower thirteen times. Perry landed with a large detachment of Marines and presented the emperor's representative with Fillmore's letter...

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