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  1. Syntax and morphology. Tá leabhar agam. "I have a book." (Literally, "there is a book at me," cf. Russian У меня есть книга, Finnish minulla on kirja, French le livre est à ... Tá leabhar agat. "You (singular) have a book." Tá leabhar aige. "He has a book." Tá leabhar aici. "She has a book." Tá ...

  2. Vowels. Fada vowels ( á, é, í, ó, ú) are always pronounced. Vowels on either side of a fada (except for other fada vowels) most often do not spell any phoneme (there are several exceptions). Their presence is ... Between a consonant and a broad vowel, e and i are usually non-phonemic in the same ...

    • What Is A “Dialect”?
    • Sound Confusing? Try Looking at It This Way
    • How Many Irish Dialects Are there?
    • Isn’T There A Standardized Form of The Language?
    • So Which Dialect Should I Learn?
    • Did You Find This Post Helpful?

    Like many nouns, “dialect” can have different meanings depending on how it’s used. For our purposes, however, we’re mainly concerned with this definition (taken from the Merriam-Webster on-line dictionary): di·a·lect:noun, often attributive\\ˈdī-ə-ˌlekt\\

    If you’re a native speaker of English, you’re already familiar with many dialects. If you’re American, for example, you know that a person born and raised in Texas will sound different from a person born and raised in New York, California, or Minnesota. It’s not just a matter of different accents. People in these regions use some words differently. They have their own unique greeting styles, for example, and may use different words for the same concept. But here’s the important thing: They’re all speaking the same language. They can understand one another. The same is true with the various dialects of Irish.

    There are three primary dialects of Irish: 1. Munster, spoken in the southern part of the island (Counties Cork, Kerry, and Clare). 2. Connacht, spoken in the western part of the island (primarily Counties Galway, Mayo, and Sligo). 3. Ulster, spoken in the northern part of the island (Mostly in County Donegal, but also in parts of Monaghan, Cavan, Derry, Antrim, Down, Armagh, Fermanagh, and Tyrone). There used to be a fourth regional dialect — Leinster Irish, spoken in the eastern part of the island — but Leinster Irish has died out as a distinct dialect. Some would say there’s yet another developing dialect: Urban Irish. This is Irish spoken outside of the traditional Gaeltachtaí (Irish-speaking regions), primarily in the cities.

    The shortest possible answer to this question is “yes, but…”. There is a standardized form of Irish, known as “An Caighdeán Oifigiúil” — “The Official Standard.” It was created to provide a very basic standard for such things as official documents, school lessons, etc. The Caighdeán, as it is known, contains elements from all three major dialects. There are several differences, however, between it and other standardized languages with which you may be familiar: 1. It doesn’t address pronunciation or regional accents. The Caighdeán is an entirely written standard. 2. It allows for dialect forms. Unlike other standardized language, which may condemn regional forms as “incorrect” or “informal,” theCaighdeánholds them as equally valid. 3. It isn’t actually spoken by anyone. Even on television and radio, Irish speakers use their own regional dialects. So, while the Caighdeán is useful as a reference, it isn’t a dialect in and of itself that learners can actually learn to speak.

    First, it’s important to remember that the three main dialects of Irish are mutually intelligible. Learning one will not prevent youfrom communicating with people who speak the other two. There is no such thing as a “best dialect” in Irish. Other languages may have dialects that are perceived (rightly or wrongly) to be more “educated-sounding,” but that’s not the case here. Another thing to keep in mind is that most learners actually learn a “mixed dialect,”at least initially. Some may eventually decide to specialize in one or the other, but it’s not strictly necessary. Here are some reasons learners give for choosing a particular dialect to focus on: 1. A special affinity for a particular part of the country. If your family came from Donegal, for example, or if you’ve always dreamed of visiting Cork, you might wish to specialize. 2. It just seems easier. While the dialects aren’t thatdifferent from one another, sometimes people find one a bit easier to pronounce or a bit more intui...

    Did you know all this about Irish dialects before you read this post? Did the issue worry you at all? Let us know your thoughts below!

    • Translations
    • Dictionaries
    • Old Spellings
    • Election / Constitution
    • Reviews
    • Grammar
    • Dialects
    • Current Irish

    The first Irish translation of the New Testament begun by Nicholas Walsh, Bishop of Ossory until his demise in 1587; it was continued by his assistant John Kearney with Dr. Nehemiah Donnellan, Archbishop of Tuam, this was finally completed by Uiliam Ó ‘Domhnaill (who had succeeded Bishop Donnellan) then published during 1602. The work of translating the Old Testament was undertaken by William Bedel: it was not published until 1680 by Narcissus March, Archbishop of Dublin. John Richardson published a revised edition of the 1606 Common Prayer Book in 1712. [x]

    Several dictionaries were published over the years: from ‘The Royal Dictionary’ of 1699 & 1729 by Abel Boyer to The English – Irish Dictionary of Begley & Mc Curtain in 1732. John O ‘Brien published ‘Foclóir Gaoidhilge – sags – béarla Or’ in 1768. An English – Irish edition of 1814 by Thaddaeus Connellan was produced. During1855 an English – Irish edition by Daniel Foley was printed. Edward O’ Reilly’s Irish – English 1864 edition was later revised by John O ‘Donovan. [xi] The Irish Texts Society’s 1904 Irish – English Bilingual Dictionary by Patrick S Dineen used traditional spellings. [xii] Timothy O ‘Neill Lane published Foclói béarla – Gaedglige during 1917. An English – Irish phrase Dictionary was published by Lambert Mc Kenna in 1922. [xiii] Following the creation of the Irish Free State during 1922 all Acts of the Oireachtas included Dineen’s spellings plus were translated into Irish. These were followed by several simplifications over the years. [xiv]

    The following are some old spellings criticized by T. F. O ‘Reilly with their simplifications from old Spelling to New Spelling: Beirbhiughadh toBeiriú, Imthighthe toImithe, Faghbháil toFáil, Urradhas to Urrús also Filidheacht toFilíocht. His publication ‘Irish Dialects past & present; with Chapters on Scottish & Manx’, 1932 Brown & Nolan Dublin was expanded in 1947, then republished during 1957 combined with the standard grammar of 1953 It attracted initial criticism as unhistorical or artificial; several spellings failed to represent the pronunciation of many dialects, while others preserved letters not pronounced in any dialect. Its status was reinforced by use in the civil service also as a guide for Tomás de Bhaldraithe‘s 1959 English–Irish dictionary. During the early 1940’s Seamus Dalton issued his own guidelines re standardization of Irish spelling & grammar. [xv]

    Eamon de Valera, President of the Executive Council from the 1932 Election insisted that policy reverted to older spelling which was then used for the 1937 Constitution. During 1941 he decided to publish a ‘popular’ edition of the Constitution. De Valera also established a committee of experts that failed to agree to recommendations; instead the Oireachtas’s own translation service prepared a booklet; ‘Litriú na Gaeilge: lámhleabhair an Chaighdeáin Oifigiüil’ which was published during 1945. [xvi]

    The Oireachtas’s own translation in 1945 printed a booklet ‘Litiúna Gailge: Lámhleabhar an Chaighdeain Oifigiúil.’ (Published in Early Modern History1500-1700 issue 5 Sept – Oct 2012 Vol 20.) This booklet was expanded during 1947 then republished as ‘An Caighdheán Oifigiúi’ in 1959, combined with a standard graminer of 1953. During 1959 Tomas de bHaldraille’s English – Irish Dictionary was mandated within the Irish Civil Service. [xvii] This publication ‘An Introduction to Old Irish (Introduction to Older Languages)’ 1975 Lehmann R. P. M. & Lehmann W. P. was intended to enable students to understand the Old Irish writings plus spellings. [xviii] During 1977 Niall Ó ‘Dónaill’s 1977 Irish – English was mandated into the Irish Civil Service. [xix] A review of the written standard, including spelling, was initiated during 2010, with a view to improving “simplicity, internal consistency, and logic.” [xx] An updated publication of ‘Caishdean Oifiguil’ occurred during 2017. [xxi]

    The grammar of early Modern Irish was initially presented in a series of grammatical Tracts. These were edited & published by Osborn Bergin as a supplement to Éiru between 1916 to 1955. [xxii] Irish has a case system like Latin or German. It has four cases showing functions of nouns or pronouns in a sentence. In phonology it exhibits initial sandi in which the first consonant of a word is modified according to the prehistoric finial sound of the previous word in the phrase, eg An tobar ‘the wall’ or Mo thobar ‘My wall.’ [xxiii]

    Presently there are three main dialects in the Irish language: Munster (An Mhumháin), Connnacht (Connachta) also Ulster (Ulaidh). The Munster dialect is spoken mainly in Kerry (Ciarraí) plus Muskerry (Múscraí) in the western part of Cork (Contae Chorcai). The Connacht dialect is spoken mainly in Connamara (Conamara), the Aran Islands (Oiléain) also in Tourmakeady (Thur Mhic Éadaigh) in Co. Mayo (Maigh Eo). The Ulster dialect is spoken in the Rosses (na Rosa) area while in Gweedore (Gaoth Dobhair) they speak mainly in the Ulster dialect. [xxiv]

    In Modern Irish there are just a few sounds not found in some dialects of English. It has an unique spelling system. Spoken Irish has only a few sounds not found in some dialects of English. Although it may appear complicated it is in fact more regular that English spelling. Except for a few common words, that have an unstressed prefix – all words are sharply accented on the final syllable. [xxv] Gaelic Irish Type today with the buailte are rarely used except for when ‘traditional’ type is required, ie as the Motto of UCD, on Coat of Arms or as symbol of Óglaigh na Éireann. [xxvi] Irish Language has experienced a revival with a radio service, a television service plus new publications. There has been a growth in Irish – medium education. [xxvii] The Geltacht areas, several Gaelscoileanna throughout Ireland, official Language Act 2003, RTE, TG4, Radio na Gaeltachta also Foinse are the modern ways of protecting the Irish Language. [xxviii]

  3. Jul 02, 2019 · The Irish language has three dialects. The Irish dialects ( also called Gaelic or Irish Gaelic) are: Ulster Irish dialect – along the north of Ireland, including County Donegal. Connacht Irish dialect – along the west of Ireland, including County Galway. Munster Irish dialect – along the south of Ireland, including County Kerry.

    • Names of The Language
    • Relationship to Other Languages
    • Dialects
    • The Official Standard
    • Decline and Revival
    • Origin of Writing in Ireland
    • The Ogham Alphabet
    • Gaelic Script
    • Modern Irish Alphabet
    • Irish Pronunciation

    Irish is known as Irish, Gaelic or Irish Gaelic in English. The official standard name in Irish is Gaeilge /ˈɡeːlʲɟə/. Before the 1948 spelling reform, this was spelled Gaedhilge. In Middle Irish the name was spelled Gaoidhealg, in Classical Irish it was Gaoidhealg [ˈɡeːʝəlˠɡ], and it was Goídelcin Old Irish. In Ulster and northern Connacht, Irish is known as Gaedhilic/Gaeilic/Gaeilig [ˈɡeːlʲɪc] or Gaedhlag [ˈɡeːl̪ˠəɡ], In Munster it is known as Gaedhealaing/Gaoluinn/Gaelainn[ˈɡeːl̪ˠɪŋʲ/ˈɡeːl̪ˠɪnʲ]. When a distinction needs to be made between Irish (Gaeilge), Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) and/or Manx (Gaelg), Irish is referred to as Gaeilge na hÉireann(Irish Gaelic).

    Irish is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages, also known as Q-Celtic. It is closely related to Manx (Gaelg/Gailck) and Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig), the other Goidelic languages. There is some degree of mutual intelligibility between them, particular between the Scottish Gaelic of Islay and Argyll, Ulster Irish, and Manx. The grammar and vocabulary of these languages are quite similar, but the spelling and pronunciation are different, especially Manx spelling. Irish is distantly related to Welsh (Cymraeg), Cornish (Kernewek) and Breton (Brezhoneg), which form the Brythonic branch of the Celtic languages, also known as P-Celtic. The Celtic languages all have a similar grammatical structure, but have relatively little vocabulary in common. 1. A comparison of the six modern Celtic languages 2. Celtic cognates - words that are similar in the Celtic languages 3. Celtiadur - a dictionary of Celtic cognates

    There are three main dialects of Irish: Munster (An Mhumhain), Connacht (Connachta) and Ulster (Ulaidh). The Munster dialect is spoken mainly in Kerry (Ciarraí) and Muskerry (Múscraí) in the western part of County Cork (Contae Chorcaí). The Connacht dialect is spoken mainly in Connemara (Conamara), the Aran Islands (Oileáin Árann) and Tourmakeady (Tuar Mhic Éadaigh) in County Mayo (Maigh Eo). The main area where the Ulster dialect is spoken is the Rosses (na Rosa). The dialect of Gweedore (Gaoth Dobhair) is essentially the same as the Ulster dialect.

    During the 1950s and 1960s a standardised form of Irish, known the An Caighdeán Oifigiúil(The Official Standard) was developed. It combines elements from the three major dialects and its pronunciation is based on the Connacht dialect. This is the form of the language taught in most schools.

    Between the 17th and early 20th centuries, the Irish language was gradually replaced by English in most parts of Ireland. Famine and migration in the 19th and 20th centuries led to its further decline. However when the Republic of Ireland came into being in 1922, Irish was adopted as an official language, along with English, and the government and civil service become, in theory at least, officially bilingual. Irish terms were also adopted for the titles of public figures and organisations - Garda (Police), Taoiseach (Prime Minister), Dáil(Parliament). Recently the Irish language has experienced a revival with the foundation of new publications, a radio service, a television station and the growth of Irish-medium education. Irish is also increasingly being used on independent radio stations in Ireland.

    Irish first began to appear in writing in Ogham inscriptions between the 4th and 6th centuries AD. When St Patrick introduced Christianity to Ireland in the 5th century, Irish writers began to write in Latin, and at the same time Irish literature written in the Latin alphabet began to appear. The Viking invasions of the 9th and 10th centuries led to the destruction of many early manuscripts, so most surviving manuscripts were written after that time.

    The Ogham alphabet was used to write Archaic Irish, Old Welsh and Latin and Ogham inscriptions have been found in various parts of Ireland and the British Isles. More information about Ogham

    The Gaelic Script originated in medieval manuscripts as a variant of the Latin alphabet. It was used for printing Irish until quite recently and is still used on road signs and public notices throughout Ireland. More information about the Gaelic Script

    Today Irish is usually written with a version of the Latin alphabet similar to the one used for Scottish Gaelic, though a spelling reform in 1957 eliminated some of the silent letters which are still used in Scottish Gaelic. Hear the Irish alphabet: The letters j (jé), k (ká), q (cú), v (vé), w (wae), x (ex), y (yé) and z (zae) do not occur in native Irish words, but do appear in some English loanwords, for example jab (job) and veain(van). You can hear the names of the letters at:


    1. Consonants are broad when preceded and/or followed by a, o or u, and slender when preceded and/or followed by e or i. 2. Lenition (séimhiú) is a change in soundthat occurs to the beginning of words caused by a preceding word,such as a preposition. Lenition is indicated by adding an h afterthe initial consonant. For example, the Irish for shoe isbróg, [brok] but my shoe is mo bhróg[mɔ vrok]. 3. Eclipsis (urú) happens after certain words, suchas i, which means "in". Eclipsis in indicated bya...

  4. In this video I will explain some spelling and pronunciation differences that arise within the three dialects of the Irish language, although the three diale...

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