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    related to: what is event hubs signature guarantee
    • Namespace
    • Event Hubs For Apache Kafka
    • Event Publishers
    • Capture
    • Partitions
    • SAS Tokens
    • Event Consumers
    • Next Steps

    An Event Hubs namespace provides a unique scoping container, referenced by its fully qualified domain name, in which you create one or more event hubs or Kafka topics.

    This feature provides an endpoint that enables customers to talk to Event Hubs using the Kafka protocol. This integration provides customers a Kafka endpoint. This enables customers to configure their existing Kafka applications to talk to Event Hubs, giving an alternative to running their own Kafka clusters. Event Hubs for Apache Kafka supports Kafka protocol 1.0 and later.With this integration, you don't need to run Kafka clusters or manage them with Zookeeper. This also allows you to work...

    Any entity that sends data to an event hub is an event producer, or event publisher. Event publishers can publish events using HTTPS or AMQP 1.0 or Kafka 1.0 and later. Event publishers use a Shared Access Signature (SAS) token to identify themselves to an event hub, and can have a unique identity, or use a common SAS token.

    Event Hubs Capture enables you to automatically capture the streaming data in Event Hubs and save it to your choice of either a Blob storage account, or an Azure Data Lake Service account. You can enable Capture from the Azure portal, and specify a minimum size and time window to perform the capture. Using Event Hubs Capture, you specify your own Azure Blob Storage account and container, or Azure Data Lake Service account, one of which is used to store the captured data. Captured data is writ...

    Event Hubs provides message streaming through a partitioned consumer pattern in which each consumer only reads a specific subset, or partition, of the message stream. This pattern enables horizontal scale for event processing and provides other stream-focused features that are unavailable in queues and topics.A partition is an ordered sequence of events that is held in an event hub. As newer events arrive, they are added to the end of this sequence. A partition can be thought of as a \\"commit...

    Event Hubs uses Shared Access Signatures, which are available at the namespace and event hub level. A SAS token is generated from a SAS key and is an SHA hash of a URL, encoded in a specific format. Using the name of the key (policy) and the token, Event Hubs can regenerate the hash and thus authenticate the sender. Normally, SAS tokens for event publishers are created with only send privileges on a specific event hub. This SAS token URL mechanism is the basis for publisher identification int...

    Any entity that reads event data from an event hub is an event consumer. All Event Hubs consumers connect via the AMQP 1.0 session and events are delivered through the session as they become available. The client does not need to poll for data availability.

    For more information about Event Hubs, visit the following links: 1. Get started with an Event Hubs tutorial 2. Event Hubs programming guide 3. Availability and consistency in Event Hubs 4. Event Hubs FAQ 5. Event Hubs samples

  1. Authenticating Event Hubs consumers with SAS To authenticate back-end applications that consume from the data generated by Event Hubs producers, Event Hubs token authentication requires its clients to either have the manage rights or the listen privileges assigned to its Event Hubs namespace or event hub instance or topic.

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    Why do we need shared access signatures for Event Hubs?

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  3. Authorize access to Azure Event Hubs - Azure Event Hubs ... › en-us › azure
    • Azure Active Directory
    • Shared Access Signatures
    • Next Steps

    Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) integration for Event Hubs resources provides role-based access control (RBAC) for fine-grained control over a client's access to resources. You can use role-based access control (RBAC) to grant permissions to security principal, which may be a user, a group, or an application service principal. The security principal is authenticated by Azure AD to return an OAuth 2.0 token. The token can be used to authorize a request to access an Event Hubs resource. For more information about authenticating with Azure AD, see the following articles: 1. Authenticate requests to Azure Event Hubs using Azure Active Directory 2. Authorize access to Event Hubs resources using Azure Active Directory.

    Shared access signatures (SAS) for Event Hubs resources provide limited delegated access to Event Hubs resources. Adding constraints on time interval for which the signature is valid or on permissions it grants provides flexibility in managing resources. For more information, see Authenticate using shared access signatures (SAS). Authorizing users or applications using an OAuth 2.0 token returned by Azure AD provides superior security and ease of use over shared access signatures (SAS). With Azure AD, there's no need to store the access tokens with your code and risk potential security vulnerabilities. While you can continue to use shared access signatures (SAS) to grant fine-grained access to Event Hubs resources, Azure AD offers similar capabilities without the need to manage SAS tokens or worry about revoking a compromised SAS. By default, all Event Hubs resources are secured, and are available only to the account owner. Although you can use any of the authorization strategies ou...

    Review RBAC samplespublished in our GitHub repository.
    See the following articles:
    • General
    • Apache Kafka Integration
    • Throughput Units
    • Dedicated Clusters
    • Best Practices
    • Pricing
    • Quotas
    • Troubleshooting
    • Next Steps

    What is an Event Hubs namespace?

    A namespace is a scoping container for Event Hub/Kafka Topics. It gives you a unique FQDN. A namespace serves as an application container that can house multiple Event Hub/Kafka Topics.

    When do I create a new namespace vs. use an existing namespace?

    Capacity allocations (throughput units (TUs)) are billed at the namespace level. A namespace is also associated with a region. You may want to create a new namespace instead of using an existing one in one of the following scenarios: 1. You need an Event Hub associated with a new region. 2. You need an Event Hub associated with a different subscription. 3. You need an Event Hub with a distinct capacity allocation (that is, the capacity need for the namespace with the added event hub would exc...

    What is the difference between Event Hubs Basic and Standard tiers?

    The Standard tier of Azure Event Hubs provides features beyond what is available in the Basic tier. The following features are included with Standard: 1. Longer event retention 2. Additional brokered connections, with an overage charge for more than the number included 3. More than a single consumer group 4. Capture 5. Kafka integration For more information about pricing tiers, including Event Hubs Dedicated, see the Event Hubs pricing details.

    How do I integrate my existing Kafka application with Event Hubs?

    Event Hubs provides a Kafka endpoint that can be used by your existing Apache Kafka based applications. A configuration change is all that is required to have the PaaS Kafka experience. It provides an alternative to running your own Kafka cluster. Event Hubs supports Apache Kafka 1.0 and newer client versions and works with your existing Kafka applications, tools, and frameworks. For more information, see Event Hubs for Kafka repo.

    What configuration changes need to be done for my existing application to talk to Event Hubs?

    To connect to an event hub, you'll need to update the Kafka client configs. It's done by creating an Event Hubs namespace and obtaining the connection string. Change the bootstrap.servers to point the Event Hubs FQDN and the port to 9093. Update the sasl.jaas.config to direct the Kafka client to your Event Hubs endpoint (which is the connection string you've obtained), with correct authentication as shown below: bootstrap.servers={YOUR.EVENTHUBS.FQDN}

    What is the message/event size for Event Hubs?

    The maximum message size allowed for Event Hubs is 1 MB.

    What are Event Hubs throughput units?

    Throughput in Event Hubs defines the amount of data in mega bytes or the number (in thousands) of 1-KB events that ingress and egress through Event Hubs. This throughput is measured in throughput units (TUs). Purchase TUs before you can start using the Event Hubs service. You can explicitly select Event Hubs TUs either by using portal or Event Hubs Resource Manager templates.

    Do throughput units apply to all event hubs in a namespace?

    Yes, throughput units (TUs) apply to all event hubs in an Event Hubs namespace. It means that you purchase TUs at the namespace level and are shared among the event hubs under that namespace. Each TU entitles the namespace to the following capabilities: 1. Up to 1 MB per second of ingress events (events sent into an event hub), but no more than 1000 ingress events, management operations, or control API calls per second. 2. Up to 2 MB per second of egress events (events consumed from an event...

    How are throughput units billed?

    Throughput units (TUs) are billed on an hourly basis. The billing is based on the maximum number of units that was selected during the given hour.

    What are Event Hubs Dedicated clusters?

    Event Hubs Dedicated clusters offer single-tenant deployments for customers with most demanding requirements. This offering builds a capacity-based cluster that is not bound by throughput units. It means that you could use the cluster to ingest and stream your data as dictated by the CPU and memory usage of the cluster. For more information, see Event Hubs Dedicated clusters.

    How much does a single capacity unit let me achieve?

    For a dedicated cluster, how much you can ingest and stream depends on various factors such as your producers, consumers, the rate at which you're ingesting and processing, and much more. Following table shows the benchmark results that we achieved during our testing: In the testing, the following criteria was used: 1. A dedicated Event Hubs cluster with four capacity units (CUs) was used. 2. The event hub used for ingestion had 200 partitions. 3. The data that was ingested was received by tw...

    How do I create an Event Hubs Dedicated cluster?

    You create an Event Hubs dedicated cluster by submitting a quota increase support request or by contacting the Event Hubs team. It typically takes about two weeks to get the cluster deployed and handed over to be used by you. This process is temporary until a complete self-serve is made available through the Azure portal.

    How many partitions do I need?

    The number of partitions is specified at creation and must be between 2 and 32. The partition count isn't changeable, so you should consider long-term scale when setting partition count. Partitions are a data organization mechanism that relates to the downstream parallelism required in consuming applications. The number of partitions in an event hub directly relates to the number of concurrent readers you expect to have. For more information on partitions, see Partitions. You may want to set...

    Where can I find more pricing information?

    For complete information about Event Hubs pricing, see the Event Hubs pricing details.

    Is there a charge for retaining Event Hubs events for more than 24 hours?

    The Event Hubs Standard tier does allow message retention periods longer than 24 hours, for a maximum of seven days. If the size of the total number of stored events exceeds the storage allowance for the number of selected throughput units (84 GB per throughput unit), the size that exceeds the allowance is charged at the published Azure Blob storage rate. The storage allowance in each throughput unit covers all storage costs for retention periods of 24 hours (the default) even if the throughp...

    How is the Event Hubs storage size calculated and charged?

    The total size of all stored events, including any internal overhead for event headers or on disk storage structures in all event hubs, is measured throughout the day. At the end of the day, the peak storage size is calculated. The daily storage allowance is calculated based on the minimum number of throughput units that were selected during the day (each throughput unit provides an allowance of 84 GB). If the total size exceeds the calculated daily storage allowance, the excess storage is bi...

    Are there any quotas associated with Event Hubs?

    For a list of all Event Hubs quotas, see quotas.

    Why am I not able to create a namespace after deleting it from another subscription?

    When you delete a namespace from a subscription, wait for 4 hours before recreating it with the same name in another subscription. Otherwise, you may receive the following error message: Namespace already exists.

    What are some of the exceptions generated by Event Hubs and their suggested actions?

    For a list of possible Event Hubs exceptions, see Exceptions overview.

    Diagnostic logs

    Event Hubs supports two types of diagnostics logs- Capture error logs and operational logs - both of which are represented in json and can be turned on through the Azure portal.

    You can learn more about Event Hubs by visiting the following links: 1. Event Hubs overview 2. Create an Event Hub 3. Event Hubs Auto-inflate

  4. Event Hubs—Real-Time Data Ingestion | Microsoft Azure › en-us › services

    Event Hubs is a fully managed, real-time data ingestion service that’s simple, trusted, and scalable. Stream millions of events per second from any source to build dynamic data pipelines and immediately respond to business challenges. Keep processing data during emergencies using the geo-disaster recovery and geo-replication features.

    • Overview
    • Partition Tolerance
    • Availability
    • Consistency
    • Next Steps

    Azure Event Hubs uses a partitioning modelto improve availability and parallelization within a single event hub. For example, if an event hub has four partitions, and one of those partitions is moved from one server to another in a load balancing operation, you can still send and receive from three other partitions. Additionally, having more partitions enables you to have more concurrent readers processing your data, improving your aggregate throughput. Understanding the implications of partitioning and ordering in a distributed system is a critical aspect of solution design. To help explain the trade-off between ordering and availability, see the CAP theorem, also known as Brewer's theorem. This theorem discusses the choice between consistency, availability, and partition tolerance. It states that for the systems partitioned by network there is always tradeoff between consistency and availability. Brewer's theorem defines consistency and availability as follows: 1. Partition tolera...

    Event Hubs is built on top of a partitioned data model. You can configure the number of partitions in your event hub during setup, but you cannot change this value later. Since you must use partitions with Event Hubs, you have to make a decision about availability and consistency for your application.

    The simplest way to get started with Event Hubs is to use the default behavior. For use cases that require the maximum up time, this model is preferred.

    In some scenarios, the ordering of events can be important. For example, you may want your back-end system to process an update command before a delete command. In this instance, you can either set the partition key on an event, or use a PartitionSender object (if you are using the old Microsoft.Azure.Messaging library) to only send events to a certain partition. Doing so ensures that when these events are read from the partition, they are read in order. If you are using the Azure.Messaging.EventHubs library and for more information, see Migrating code from PartitionSender to EventHubProducerClient for publishing events to a partition. With this configuration, keep in mind that if the particular partition to which you are sending is unavailable, you will receive an error response. As a point of comparison, if you do not have an affinity to a single partition, the Event Hubs service sends your event to the next available partition. One possible solution to ensure ordering, while also...

    You can learn more about Event Hubs by visiting the following links: 1. Event Hubs service overview 2. Create an event hub

  5. Azure Functions: Choosing between queues and event hubs ... › azure-functions-choosing-between

    In previous blogs, I’ve spent some time explaining Event Grid, Event Hubs ordering guarantees, how to have ordering guarantees in queues / topics, and how to keep Event Hub stream processes resilient. In this blog, I specifically want to tackle one other important aspect: throughput for variable workloads.

    • Events
    • Publishers
    • Event Sources
    • Topics
    • Event Subscriptions
    • Event Subscription Expiration
    • Event Handlers
    • Security
    • Event Delivery
    • Batching

    An event is the smallest amount of information that fully describes something that happened in the system. Every event has common information like: source of the event, time the event took place, and unique identifier. Every event also has specific information that is only relevant to the specific type of event. For example, an event about a new file being created in Azure Storage has details about the file, such as the lastTimeModifiedvalue. Or, an Event Hubs event has the URL of the Capture file. An event of size up to 64 KB is covered by General Availability (GA) Service Level Agreement (SLA). The support for an event of size up to 1 MB is currently in preview. Events over 64 KB are charged in 64-KB increments. For the properties that are sent in an event, see Azure Event Grid event schema.

    A publisher is the user or organization that decides to send events to Event Grid. Microsoft publishes events for several Azure services. You can publish events from your own application. Organizations that host services outside of Azure can publish events through Event Grid.

    An event source is where the event happens. Each event source is related to one or more event types. For example, Azure Storage is the event source for blob created events. IoT Hub is the event source for device created events. Your application is the event source for custom events that you define. Event sources are responsible for sending events to Event Grid. For information about implementing any of the supported Event Grid sources, see Event sources in Azure Event Grid.

    The event grid topic provides an endpoint where the source sends events. The publisher creates the event grid topic, and decides whether an event source needs one topic or more than one topic. A topic is used for a collection of related events. To respond to certain types of events, subscribers decide which topics to subscribe to. System topics are built-in topics provided by Azure services. You don't see system topics in your Azure subscription because the publisher owns the topics, but you can subscribe to them. To subscribe, you provide information about the resource you want to receive events from. As long as you have access to the resource, you can subscribe to its events. Custom topics are application and third-party topics. When you create or are assigned access to a custom topic, you see that custom topic in your subscription. When designing your application, you have flexibility when deciding how many topics to create. For large solutions, create a custom topic for each cat...

    A subscription tells Event Grid which events on a topic you're interested in receiving. When creating the subscription, you provide an endpoint for handling the event. You can filter the events that are sent to the endpoint. You can filter by event type, or subject pattern. For more information, see Event Grid subscription schema. For examples of creating subscriptions, see: 1. Azure CLI samples for Event Grid 2. Azure PowerShell samples for Event Grid 3. Azure Resource Manager templates for Event Grid For information about getting your current event grid subscriptions, see Query Event Grid subscriptions.

    The event subscription is automatically expired after that date. Set an expiration for event subscriptions that are only needed for a limited time and you don't want to worry about cleaning up those subscriptions. For example, when creating an event subscription to test a scenario, you might want to set an expiration. For an example of setting an expiration, see Subscribe with advanced filters.

    From an Event Grid perspective, an event handler is the place where the event is sent. The handler takes some further action to process the event. Event Grid supports several handler types. You can use a supported Azure service or your own webhook as the handler. Depending on the type of handler, Event Grid follows different mechanisms to guarantee the delivery of the event. For HTTP webhook event handlers, the event is retried until the handler returns a status code of 200 – OK. For Azure Storage Queue, the events are retried until the Queue service successfully processes the message push into the queue. For information about implementing any of the supported Event Grid handlers, see Event handlers in Azure Event Grid.

    Event Grid provides security for subscribing to topics, and publishing topics. When subscribing, you must have adequate permissions on the resource or event grid topic. When publishing, you must have a SAS token or key authentication for the topic. For more information, see Event Grid security and authentication.

    If Event Grid can't confirm that an event has been received by the subscriber's endpoint, it redelivers the event. For more information, see Event Grid message delivery and retry.

    When using a custom topic, events must always be published in an array. This can be a batch of one for low-throughput scenarios, however, for high volume use cases, it's recommended that you batch several events together per publish to achieve higher efficiency. Batches can be up to 1 MB. Each event should still not be greater than 64 KB (General Availability) or 1 MB (preview).

  6. Pricing - Event Hubs | Microsoft Azure › en-us › pricing

    Event Hubs lets you stream millions of events per second from any source so you can build dynamic data pipelines and respond to business challenges immediately. Keep data ingestion secure with geo-disaster recovery and geo-replication options.

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