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      • Constitutional monarchy is Canada’s system of government. In contrast to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch has unchecked power, a constitutional monarch is limited by the laws of the Constitution. Constitutional monarchs do not directly rule, but instead carry out constitutional, ceremonial and representational duties.,instead%20carry%20out%20constitutional%2C%20ceremonial%20and%20representational%20duties.
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  2. Constitutional Monarchy | The Canadian Encyclopedia
    • Constitutional Monarchy and The Constitution
    • How The Constitutional Monarchy Works
    • The Monarch
    • The Governor General and Lieutenant Governors

    Canada’s constitutional monarchy has roots in both the French and British monarchies. At Confederation, political leaders decided to remain a constitutional monarchy. According to the Constitution Act, 1867, “The Executive Government and Authority of and over Canada is hereby declared to continue and be vested in the Queen.” This granted Canada a system of government modelled on that of the United Kingdom. However, the British government continued to control Canada's foreign policy. Over the years, Canada gained more control over its relationship with other countries. In 1982, the Canadian Parliament gained full control of its Constitution in what was known as patriation. Under the Constitution, the Crown is the source of nonpartisan sovereign authority in Canada. That is, the Crown has the power to govern, but entrusts this power to the elected government, which holds it on a temporary basis. As head of state, the monarch is above politics, unlike the head of government, the prime...

    Under Canada’s system of responsible government, the Crown is a vital part of the legislative, executive and judicial powers that govern the country. The Crown is the source of these powers, but they are exercised by the federal and provincial governments. In theory, the Crown and its representatives (governors general, lieutenant governors) can reject the advice, decisions and actions of parliament, ministers or judges. However, this rarely happens. In general, the Crown is bound to follow the government’s advice, which in turn represents the will of the people. For example, Parliamentand provincial assemblies vote on and pass bills. Before they become law, they must be approved by the Crown. In theory, the Crown could withhold its assent, but this has not happened since 1945. The monarch and vice-regal representatives in Canada, known as the governor general and lieutenant governors, have prerogative powers. These can be made in theory without the approval of another branch of gov...

    Canada’s Head of State is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. The Queen is also the Head of State in the United Kingdom and 14 other Commonwealth realms. According to the terms of the Act of Settlement of 1701, Queen Elizabeth II will be succeeded by her eldest child, Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales. He will in turn be succeeded by his elder child, Prince William, the Duke of Cambridge. In 2013, the Act of Settlement was reformed to end the system of male primogeniture. Prior to this, the eldest malechild inherited the throne. Therefore, a younger son could displace an older daughter. The 2013 reform — which came into effect across the Commonwealth in 2015 — ended this system and made the eldest child, regardless of gender, the heir to the throne.

    In Canada, the monarch is represented by the Governor General. The current Governor General is Her Excellency the Right Honourable Julie Payette. In Canada’s 10 provinces, the Crown is represented by a Lieutenant Governor. Territorial commissionersrepresent the federal government in the territories but perform similar duties to lieutenant governors.

  3. Constitutional Duties | The Governor General of Canada

    Canada is a constitutional monarchy, where the duties of head of State and head of government are distinct. The governor general exercises the powers and responsibilities of the Head of State, Her Majesty The Queen. As such, the governor general is non-partisan and apolitical. As The Queen’s representative in Canada, the governor general has a number of responsibilities, one of the most important being to ensure that Canada always has a prime minister and a government in place that has the ...

  4. Monarchy of Canada - Wikipedia

    The monarchy of Canada is at the core of Canada's constitutional federal structure and Westminster-style parliamentary democracy. The monarchy is the foundation of the executive (Queen-in-Council), legislative (Queen-in-Parliament), and judicial (Queen-on-the-Bench) branches of both federal and provincial jurisdictions.

  5. Canada's constitutional monarchy | CBC News

    Canada is a constitutional monarchy and our head of state is Queen Elizabeth. But the Constitution limits her powers in government and she is generally considered a figurehead leader only. The...

  6. Canada's Constitutional Monarchy - Canada's Constitutional ...

    "Canada's Constitutional Monarchy by Nathan Tidridge delivers on its promise to take us past the parliamentary walls of power to the underlying principles of Canadian Government, and, more specifically, the role of our Queen and her representatives in Canada.

  7. Constitutional Law | The Canadian Encyclopedia
    • Sources of Constitutional Law
    • Constitutional Monarchy
    • Legislative, Executive and Judicial
    • Distribution of Powers
    • Federalism and The Amending Formula
    • Failed Attempts at Change
    • Evolution of Federalism

    The primary sources of Canadian constitutional law are legislative rules—in the form of documents and statutes created over time: the Constitution Acts of 1867 and 1982 (see Patriation of the Constitution), and other documents that make up the Constitution of Canada. That includes federal and provincial statutes related to constitutional matters, orders-in-council, letters patent (written orders from the Crown) and proclamations. Section 52 of the Constitution Act, 1982provides for the Constitution of Canada to include the Canada Act of 1982 and the Constitution Act of 1982, as well as legislative texts and decrees included in Appendix I of the latter act, and the modifications to these legislative texts and decrees. According to the preamble of the Constitution Act of 1867, the Canadian Constitution is similar in principle to the Constitution of the United Kingdom; therefore, along with their own constitutional statutes Canadians have inherited various British laws and charters suc...

    The character of the Canadian Constitution reflects Canada's position as a constitutional monarchy (see Crown), a parliamentary democracy and a federation. As a constitutional monarch the Queen, who is sovereign in Canada, reigns but does not rule. Executive power is effectively wielded by the prime minister and the Cabinet. The Queen, because of Canada's federal system, is represented at both levels of government, federally by the governor general and in each province by a federally appointed lieutenant-governor. In the January 1982 judgment of the British Court of Appeal on the Indians of Alberta, Lord Denning stated that although in principle the Crown is indivisible, it has become separate and divisible through practice and usage. The conventions of the Canadian Constitution accurately reflect the actual exercise of executive power. For example, although the Crown can refuse to give assent to legislation (by either disallowing assent or reserving—delaying—assent), under constitu...

    In Canada the distinction between legislative, executive and judicial powers is not as sharp as in the United States. Judicial power is separate in Canada, but in the Canadian parliamentary system, the executive is also part of the legislative branch, and responsible to it. Parliament comprises the Queen, as head of Canada, a Senate and a House of Commons. A well-established constitutional convention requires that the government maintain the confidence of the Commons to remain in power. If such confidence is lost, the prime minister must either resign or seek dissolution of Parliament. The government is not responsible to the Senate. On matters of constitutional amendment, the Senate only has a delaying veto of 180 days; otherwise it has the same decision-making powers as the House of Commons, although money bills must originate in the Commons. The concept of parliamentary supremacy— that Parliament's powers are unlimited—originates in British constitutional law. Canada has inherite...

    Canada has been a federation since 1867. Legislative, executive and judicial powers are divided between the two levels of government, federal and provincial. The Constitution Act of 1867 lists areas of federal jurisdiction (eg, the postal system, criminal law, banking, navigation, defence, bankruptcy) and areas of provincial jurisdiction (eg, property and civil rights, municipal institutions). Other articles or sections allocate special powers (eg, education) and concurrent jurisdictions (eg, agriculture and immigration, old-age pensions, supplementary benefits). Two important areas of federal jurisdiction are the regulation of trade and commerce (interprovincial and international trade or so-called "genera" trade and commerce, as defined by the Supreme Court of Canada) and the authority to legislate over matters relating to the peace, order and good governmentof Canada. The latter is concerned with matters that might otherwise fall within provincial authority and deals with nationa...

    Federalism in Canada rests on a trilogy of factors: the distribution of powers; the interpretation of these powers by the courts, which must ensure that the distribution of powers in the Constitution is not violated and that all enacted legislation is constitutional; and the formula for constitutional amendment. The Constitution of 1867 had no general amending formula. Since 1867 the provincial legislatures have had the right to amend their internal constitutions (except where they concerned the role of the lieutenant-governor), but Parliament did not gain the right to amend its internal constitution until 1949. For changes to the most important part of the Constitution it had to address the Parliament at Westminster, which would legislate a constitutional amendment if requested to by both federal houses. From 1927 to 1981 the federal and provincial governments tried unsuccessfully to agree on an amending formula. The Victoria Charter of 1971 was an agreement reached by Canadian hea...

    At Meech Lake on 30 April 1987 and in Ottawa on 3 June 1987, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the premiers of the 10 provinces agreed on a constitutional accord termed the Meech Lake Accord (see Meech Lake Accord: Document) to allow Québec to give its "political" consent to the patriation of the Constitution in 1982, and the Constitution Act of 1982. The Meech Lake Accord eventually failed. A further attempt for national reconciliation led to a national referendum in 1990 (see Charlottetown Accord). This initiative also failed. The political aftermath of the two failed accords resulted in the second Québec referendum on separation (see Québec Referendum (1995)). The vote was narrowly decided in favour of the federalist side of the debate. Political developments that followed the referendum result included federal legislation recognizing Québec as a distinct society, and federal non-constitutional legislation committing the government not to proceed with future amendments to the con...

    Canadian federalism evolves by constitutional amendments, by administrative agreements and by judicial decisions. Since the patriation of the Constitution in 1982, eight constitutional amendments have been adopted: Aboriginal rights (equality of men and women) in 1983; electoral representation at the federal level in 1985; the school system in Newfoundland in 1987, 1997 and 1998; the rights of the two linguistic communities in New Brunswick in 1993; the Prince Edward Island Confederation Bridge in 1994; and the school system in Québec in 1997 (section 93). Other changes, but not of a constitutional nature, have also taken place since the Québec referendum of 30 October 1995. They consist of two motions recognizing the distinct character of Québec, one passed by the House of Commons, the other adopted by the Senate in 1995; the act concerning constitutional amendments which provides for five regional vetos in 1996; and administrative arrangements concerning manpower training with man...

  8. Monarchy | The Canada Guide

    The governor general is authorized to ceremonially sign and approve things on behalf of the Queen, and in doing so ensures that Canada’s constitutional monarchy system continues to function properly, even in the absence of an actual monarch on Canadian soil. To learn more, check out the Governor General of Canada chapter.

  9. Constitutional Monarchy Definition and Examples

    Jan 27, 2019 · A constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a non-elected monarch functions as the head of state within the limits of a constitution. Political power in a constitutional monarchy is shared between the monarch and an organized government such as the British Parliament. A constitutional monarchy is the opposite of an absolute monarchy in which the monarch has total power over the government and the people.

  10. Constitutional monarchy - Wikipedia

    A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Constitutional monarchy differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power) in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework.

  11. Why Canada Should Get Rid Of the Monarchy: 5 Fast Facts ...

    Apr 17, 2015 · While abolishing the monarchy in Canada would have massive repercussions (the foundation of our political system is based on it), countries like the U.S., Ireland and India show us that it can be ...