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  1. Leonese ( Leonese: Llionés, Asturian: Lleonés) is a set of vernacular Romance language varieties currently spoken in northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal. In this narrow sense, Leonese is distinct from the dialects ...

    • 20,000–50,000 (2008)
    • Spain, Portugal
    • Education
    • Pronunciation
    • Endangered Language
    • Literature
    • Sources
    • Other Websites in Leonese Language

    Leonese is taught in sixteen schools in the cirt of León, and there are lessons for adults in several villages in the provinces of León and Zamora. For approximately fifteen years, some cultural associations have offered courses in Leonese, sometimes with the support or collaboration of local administrations in the provinces of Leon and Zamora. There was never collaboration by Castile and León. The courses have taken place mostly with difficulty, without continuity or by unqualified teachers and very often, far from where Leonese is spoken.

    The language has five vowels in a stressed position, represented by a, e, i, o and u, and three (two archiphonemes /I/, /U/ and one phoneme /a/) in a nonstressed position, represented by e, u, and aat the end of word.

    UNESCO, in its Atlas of Languages in Danger in the World,places Leonese among languages in danger. Leonese is classified in the worst of the possible situations whose characteristics are: 1. Non-official language. 2. No presence in the means of communication. 3. Low level of knowledge and use. 4. Low social consideration of the language. 5. Absence of the language in the school. 6. Toponymy without normalizing.

    Literature written in Leonese started in the Middle Ages and is still written today. The first written text in Leonese is the Nodicia of Kesos (959 or 974), found in Ardón. Other works in Leonese include the Fueru de Llión, Fueru de Salamanca, Fueru Xulgu, Códice d'Alfonsu XI, Disputa d'Elena y María and Llibru d'Alixandre. Important writers are Torres Naharro, Juan del Encina, and Lucas Fernández. Some writers like Caitano Bardón (Cuentos en Dialecto Leonés), Luis Maldonado or Aragón Escacena (Entre brumas) restarted the Leonese literature in the early 20th century. Today, important writers include Eva González in the last 20th century or Abel Pardo, Xuasús González, Adrianu Martín or Félix Llópez.

    García Gil, Hector (2010). «El asturiano-leonés: aspectos lingüísticos, sociolingüísticos y legislación». Working Papers Collection. Mercator Legislation, Dret i legislació lingüístics. (25). ISSN...
    Academia de la Lengua Asturiana«Normes ortográfiques». 2005. ISBN 978-84-8168-394-3.
    Héctor García Gil. Asturian-leonese: Linguistic, Sociolinguistic and Legal Aspects Archived 2011-09-04 at the Wayback Machine
    Asturian Language Academy Archived 2010-03-29 at the Wayback Machine
    González i Planas, Francesc. Institutum Studiorum Romanicorum «Romania Minor». The Asturleonese Dialects. Archived 2012-12-20 at the Wayback Machine
    • 20,000–50,000 (2008)
    • Spain, Portugal
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