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  1. Roman Egypt - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Egypt_(Roman_province)

    Aegyptus was bordered by the provinces of Crete and Cyrenaica to the west and Judea (later Arabia Petraea) to the East. The province came to serve as a major producer of grain for the empire and had a highly developed urban economy.

  2. Category:Egypt (Roman province) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › Category:Egypt_(Roman_province)

    Pages in category "Egypt (Roman province)" The following 30 pages are in this category, out of 30 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().

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  4. Roman province - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Roman_province

    e The Roman provinces (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled by a Roman appointed as governor.

  5. Talk:Roman Egypt - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Talk:Egypt_(Roman_province)

    Support: "Roman Egypt" is a common term. Also preferrable since Egypt was split into several provinces in the late empire but this article covers events up until the Romans lost the country, meaning that "Egypt (Roman province)" isn't actually accurate. Ichthyovenator 10:50, 26 December 2020 (UTC)

  6. Roman Egypt — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

    wiki2.org › en › Roman_Egypt
    • Roman Rule in Egypt
    • Roman Government in Egypt
    • Economy
    • Military
    • Social Structure in Early Roman Egypt
    • Christian Egypt
    • Later Roman Egypt
    • Episcopal Sees
    • Sassanian Persian Invasion
    • Arab Islamic Conquest

    As a key province, but also the 'crown do­main' where the em­per­ors suc­ceeded the di­vine Pharaohs, Egypt was ruled by a uniquely styled Prae­fec­tus au­gustalis ('Au­gustal pre­fect'), in­stead of the tra­di­tional sen­a­to­r­ial gov­er­nor of other Roman provinces. The pre­fect was a man of eques­trian rank and was ap­pointed by the Em­peror. The first pre­fect of Ae­gyp­tus, Gaius Cor­nelius Gal­lus, brought Upper Egypt under Roman con­trol by force of arms, and es­tab­lished a pro­tec­torateover the south­ern fron­tier dis­trict, which had been aban­doned by the later Ptolemies. The sec­ond pre­fect, Aelius Gal­lus, made an un­suc­cess­ful ex­pe­di­tion to con­quer Ara­bia Pe­traea and even Ara­bia Felix. The Red Sea coast of Ae­gyp­tus was not brought under Roman con­trol until the reign of Claudius. The third pre­fect, Gaius Petro­n­ius, cleared the ne­glected canals for ir­ri­ga­tion, stim­u­lat­ing a re­vival of agri­cul­ture. Petro­n­ius even led a cam­paign into pre­sent...

    As Rome over­took the Ptole­maic sys­tem in place for areas of Egypt, they made many changes. The ef­fect of the Roman con­quest was at first to strengthen the po­si­tion of the Greeks and of Hel­lenismagainst Egypt­ian in­flu­ences. Some of the pre­vi­ous of­fices and names of of­fices under the Hel­lenis­tic Ptole­maic rule were kept, some were changed, and some names would have re­mained but the func­tion and ad­min­is­tra­tion would have changed. The Ro­mans in­tro­duced im­por­tant changes in the ad­min­is­tra­tive sys­tem, aimed at achiev­ing a high level of ef­fi­ciency and max­i­miz­ing rev­enue. The du­ties of the pre­fect of Ae­gyp­tus com­bined re­spon­si­bil­ity for mil­i­tary se­cu­rity through com­mand of the le­gions and co­horts, for the or­ga­ni­za­tion of fi­nance and tax­a­tion, and for the ad­min­is­tra­tion of jus­tice. The re­forms of the early 4th cen­tury had es­tab­lished the basis for an­other 250 years of com­par­a­tive pros­per­ity in Ae­gyp­tus, at a cos...

    The eco­nomic re­sources that this im­pe­r­ial gov­ern­ment ex­isted to ex­ploit had not changed since the Ptole­maic pe­riod, but the de­vel­op­ment of a much more com­plex and so­phis­ti­cated tax­a­tion sys­temwas a hall­mark of Roman rule. Taxes in both cash and kind were as­sessed on land, and a be­wil­der­ing va­ri­ety of small taxes in cash, as well as cus­toms dues and the like, was col­lected by ap­pointed of­fi­cials. A mas­sive amount of Ae­gyp­tus's grain was shipped down­river (north) both to feed the pop­u­la­tion of Alexan­driaand for ex­port to the Roman cap­i­tal. There were fre­quent com­plaints of op­pres­sion and ex­tor­tion from the tax­pay­ers. The Roman gov­ern­ment had ac­tively en­cour­aged the pri­va­ti­za­tionof land and the in­crease of pri­vate en­ter­prise in man­u­fac­ture, com­merce, and trade, and low tax rates fa­vored pri­vate own­ers and en­tre­pre­neurs. The poorer peo­ple gained their liveli­hood as ten­ants of state-owned land or of prop­erty b...

    This wealth­i­est of provinces could be held mil­i­tar­ily by a very small force; and the threat im­plicit in an em­bargo on the ex­port of grain sup­plies, vital to the pro­vi­sion­ing of the city of Rome and its pop­u­lace, was ob­vi­ous. In­ter­nal se­cu­rity was guar­an­teed by the pres­ence of three Roman le­gions (later re­duced to two, then one Legio II Tra­iana) sta­tioned at the grand cap­i­tal Alexan­dria. Each of these num­bered around 5000 strong, and sev­eral units of aux­il­iaries. In the first decade of Roman rule the spirit of Au­gus­tan im­pe­ri­al­ism looked far­ther afield, at­tempt­ing ex­pan­sion to the east and to the south. Most of the early Roman troops sta­tioned there were Greco-Mace­do­nians and na­tive Egyp­tians once part of the dis­solved Ptole­maic army find­ing ser­vice for Rome. Even­tu­ally Ro­mans or Ro­man­ized peo­ple were a ma­jor­ity.

    The so­cial struc­ture in Ae­gyp­tus under the Ro­mans was both unique and com­pli­cated. On the one hand, the Ro­mans con­tin­ued to use many of the same or­ga­ni­za­tional tac­tics that were in place under the lead­ers of the Ptole­maic pe­riod. At the same time, the Ro­mans saw the Greeks in Ae­gyp­tus as “Egyp­tians”, an idea that both the na­tive Egyp­tians and Greeks would have rejected.To fur­ther com­pound the whole sit­u­a­tion, Jews, who them­selves were very Hel­l­enized over­all, had their own com­mu­ni­ties, sep­a­rate from both Greeks and na­tive Egyptians. The Ro­mans began a sys­tem of so­cial hi­er­ar­chy that re­volved around eth­nic­ity and place of res­i­dence. Other than Roman cit­i­zens, a Greek cit­i­zen of one of the Greek cities had the high­est sta­tus, and a rural Egypt­ian would be in the low­est class.In be­tween those classes was the met­ro­po­l­ite, who was al­most cer­tainly of Hel­lenic ori­gin. Gain­ing cit­i­zen­ship and mov­ing up in ranks was ver...

    The Pa­tri­ar­chate of Alexan­dria is held to be founded by Mark the Evan­ge­listaround 42. By 200 it is clear that Alexan­dria was one of the great Chris­t­ian cen­tres. The Chris­t­ian apol­o­gists Clement of Alexan­dria and Ori­genboth lived part or all of their lives in that city, where they wrote, taught, and de­bated. With the Edict of Milan in 313, Con­stan­tine I ended the per­se­cu­tion of Chris­tians. Over the course of the 5th cen­tury, pa­gan­ism was sup­pressed and lost its fol­low­ing, as the poet Pal­la­dius bit­terly noted. It lin­gered un­der­ground for many decades: the final edict against pa­gan­ism was is­sued in 435, but graf­fiti at Phi­lae in Upper Egypt proves wor­ship of Isisper­sisted at its tem­ples into the 6th cen­tury. Many Egypt­ian Jews also be­came Chris­tians, but many oth­ers re­fused to do so, leav­ing them as the only siz­able re­li­gious mi­nor­ity in a Chris­t­ian coun­try. No sooner had the Egypt­ian Church achieved free­dom and su­premacy tha...

    The reign of Con­stan­tine also saw the found­ing of Con­stan­tino­ple as a new cap­i­tal for the Roman Em­pire, and in the course of the 4th cen­tury the Em­pire was di­vided in two, with Egypt find­ing it­self in the East­ern Em­pire with its cap­i­tal at Con­stan­tino­ple. Latin, never well es­tab­lished in Egypt, would play a de­clin­ing role with Greek con­tin­u­ing to be the dom­i­nant lan­guage of gov­ern­ment and schol­ar­ship. Dur­ing the 5th and 6th cen­turies the East­ern Roman Em­pire, known his­to­ri­o­graph­i­cally as the Byzan­tine Em­pire, grad­u­ally trans­formed it­self into a thor­oughly Chris­t­ian state whose cul­ture dif­fered sig­nif­i­cantly from its pagan past. The fall of the West­ern Em­pire in the 5th cen­tury fur­ther iso­lated the Egypt­ian Ro­mans from Rome's cul­ture and has­tened the growth of Chris­tian­ity. The tri­umph of Chris­tian­ity led to a vir­tual aban­don­ment of pharaonic tra­di­tions: with the dis­ap­pear­ance of the Egypt­ian priests an...

    An­cient epis­co­pal sees of the Roman province of Ae­gyp­tus Primus (I) listed in the An­nuario Pon­tif­i­cio as tit­u­lar sees, suf­fra­gans of the Pa­tri­ar­chate of Alexan­dria : An­cient epis­co­pal sees of the Roman province of Ae­gyp­tus Se­cun­dus (II) listed in the An­nuario Pon­tif­i­cio as tit­u­lar sees:

    The Per­sian con­quest of Egypt, be­gin­ning in AD 619 or 618, was one of the last Sas­sanid tri­umphs in the Ro­man-Per­sian Wars against Byzan­tium. From 619 - 628, they in­cor­po­rated Egypt once again within their ter­ri­to­ries, the pre­vi­ous (much longer) time being under the Achaemenids. Khos­row II Parvêz had begun this war in re­tal­i­a­tion for the as­sas­si­na­tion of Em­peror Mau­rice (582–602) and had achieved a se­ries of early suc­cesses, cul­mi­nat­ing in the con­quests of Jerusalem (614) and Alexan­dria(619). A Byzan­tine coun­terof­fen­sive launched by Em­peror Her­a­clius in the spring of 622 shifted the ad­van­tage, and the war was brought to an end by the fall of Khos­row on 25 Feb­ru­ary 628 . The Egyp­tians had no love of the em­peror in Con­stan­tino­ple and put up lit­tle re­sis­tance. Khos­row's son and suc­ces­sor, Kavadh II Šêrôe (Šêrôy), who reigned until Sep­tem­ber, con­cluded a peace treaty re­turn­ing ter­ri­to­ries con­quered by the Sas­sanids to t...

    An army of 4,000 Arabs led by Amr Ibn Al-Aas was sent by the Caliph Umar, suc­ces­sor to Muham­mad, to spread Is­lamic rule to the west. Arabs crossed into Egypt from Pales­tine in De­cem­ber 639, and ad­vanced rapidly into the Nile Delta. The Im­pe­r­ial gar­risons re­treated into the walled towns, where they suc­cess­fully held out for a year or more. The Arabs sent for re­in­force­ments, and in April 641 they be­sieged and cap­tured Alexan­dria. The Byzan­tines as­sem­bled a fleet with the aim of re­cap­tur­ing Egypt, and won back Alexan­dria in 645. The Mus­lims re­took the city in 646, com­plet­ing the Mus­lim con­quest of Egypt. 40,000 civil­ians were evac­u­ated to Con­stan­tino­ple with the im­pe­r­ial fleet. Thus ended 975 years of Græco-Ro­man rule over Egypt.

    • 2181-2055 BC
    • 2055-1650 BC
    • 3150-2686 BC
    • 2686-2181 BC
  7. Egypt (Roman province) - Wikipedia for FEVERv2

    mediawiki.feverous.co.uk › index › Aegyptus_(province)

    The Roman province of Egypt (Latin: Aegyptus, pronounced [ae̯ˈɡʏptʊs; Koinē Greek: Αἴγυπτος, romanized: Aígyptos, pronounced [ɛ́ːɡyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future Roman emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Pharaoh Cleopatra, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom to the Roman Empire.

  8. מצרים (מחוז רומי) - Egypt (Roman province) - Wikipedia

    he2.wiki › wiki › Egypt_(Roman_province)

    המחוז הרומי של מצרים ( לטינית : אגיפטוס, מבוטא [ae̯ˈɡʏptʊs] ; Koinē יוונית : Αἴγυπτος, romanized: Aígyptos, מבוטא [ɛ́ɛyptos] ) הוקמה בשנת 30 לפנה

  9. 이집트 (로마 지방) - Egypt (Roman province) - Wikipedia

    korean2.wiki › wiki › Egypt_(Roman_province)

    Wikipedia에 오신 것을 환영합니다. 이제 6490477 페이지가 있습니다. 이집트 (로마 지방) - Egypt (Roman province)

  10. Roman Egypt | Ancient Egypt Wiki | Fandom

    ancientegypt.fandom.com › wiki › Roman_Egypt

    The Roman province of Egypt was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed his lover Queen Cleopatra VII and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.

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