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    • Polymerase chain reaction - Simple English Wikipedia, the ...
      • Polymerase chain reaction. Polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) is a way to make many copies of a sequence of DNA (this is sometimes called 'amplifying' the DNA). It is done in a lab, using an enzyme called DNA polymerase . It is called chain reaction because the result of one cycle is used immediately for the next cycle.
      simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymerase_chain_reaction#:~:text=Polymerase%20chain%20reaction.%20Polymerase%20chain%20reaction%20%28PCR%29%20is,cycle%20is%20used%20immediately%20for%20the%20next%20cycle.
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  2. Polymerase chain reaction - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymerase_chain_reaction

    Polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) is a method widely used to rapidly make millions to billions of copies of a specific DNA sample, allowing scientists to take a very small sample of DNA and amplify it to a large enough amount to study in detail. PCR was invented in 1984 by the American biochemist Kary Mullis at Cetus Corporation.

  3. Real-time polymerase chain reaction - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real-time_polymerase_chain...

    A real-time polymerase chain reaction, also known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction, is a laboratory technique of molecular biology based on the polymerase chain reaction. It monitors the amplification of a targeted DNA molecule during the PCR, not at its end, as in conventional PCR. Real-time PCR can be used quantitatively and semi-quantitatively. Two common methods for the detection of PCR products in real-time PCR are non-specific fluorescent dyes that intercalate with any double-stra

  4. Polymerase chain reaction - Simple English Wikipedia, the ...

    simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymerase_chain_reaction

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a way to make many copies of a sequence of DNA (this is sometimes called 'amplifying' the DNA). It is done in a lab, using an enzyme called DNA polymerase. It is called chain reaction because the result of one cycle is used immediately for the next cycle.

  5. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiplex_polymerase_chain...

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Multiplex PCR) refers to the use of polymerase chain reaction to amplify several different DNA sequences simultaneously (as if performing many separate PCR reactions all together in one reaction).

  6. History of polymerase chain reaction - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_polymerase...

    Repeated applications of polymerase could lead to a chain reaction of replication for a specific segment of the genome – PCR. Later in 1983 Mullis began to test his idea. His first experiment [2] did not involve thermal cycling – he hoped that the polymerase could perform continued replication on its own.

  7. Digital polymerase chain reaction - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_polymerase_chain...
    • Overview
    • Principles
    • Comparison between dPCR and Real-Time PCR (qPCR)
    • Applications
    • History

    Digital polymerase chain reaction is a biotechnological refinement of conventional polymerase chain reaction methods that can be used to directly quantify and clonally amplify nucleic acids strands including DNA, cDNA, or RNA. The key difference between dPCR and traditional PCR lies in the method of measuring nucleic acids amounts, with the former being a more precise method than PCR, though also more prone to error in the hands of inexperienced users. A "digital" measurement quantitatively and

    The polymerase chain reaction method is used to quantify nucleic acids by amplifying a nucleic acid molecule with the enzyme DNA polymerase. Conventional PCR is based on the theory that amplification is exponential. Therefore, nucleic acids may be quantified by comparing the number of amplification cycles and amount of PCR end-product to those of a reference sample. However, many factors complicate this calculation, creating uncertainties and inaccuracies. These factors include the following: in

    dPCR measures the actual number of molecules as each molecule is in one droplet, thus making it a discrete “digital” measurement. It provides absolute quantification because dPCR measures the positive fraction of samples, which is the number of droplets that are fluorescing due to proper amplification. This positive fraction accurately indicates the initial amount of template nucleic acid. Similarly, qPCR utilizes fluorescence; however, it measures the intensity of fluorescence at ...

    Digital PCR has many applications in basic research, clinical diagnostics and environmental testing. Its uses include pathogen detection and digestive health analysis; liquid biopsy for cancer monitoring, organ transplant rejection monitoring and non-invasive prenatal testing for serious genetic abnormalities; copy number variation analysis, single gene expression analysis, rare sequence detection, gene expression profiling and single-cell analysis; the detection of DNA contaminants in bioproces

    dPCR rose out of an approach first published in 1988 by Cetus Corporation when researchers showed single β-globin molecules could be detected and amplified by PCR. This was achieved by dividing the sample so some reactions contained the molecule and others did not. In 1990, Peter Simmonds and AJ Brown used this concept to quantify a molecule for the first time. Alex Morley and Pamela Sykes formally established the method as a quantitative technique in 1992. In 1999, Bert Vogelstein and ...

  8. Polymerase chain reaction inhibitors - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymerase_chain_reaction...

    Polymerase chain reaction inhibitors From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia PCR inhibitors are any factor which prevent the amplification of nucleic acids through the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR inhibition is the most common cause of amplification failure when sufficient copies of DNA are present.

  9. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_transcription...
    • Overview
    • History
    • Principles
    • Application
    • Challenges

    Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction is a laboratory technique combining reverse transcription of RNA into DNA and amplification of specific DNA targets using polymerase chain reaction. It is primarily used to measure the amount of a specific RNA. This is achieved by monitoring the amplification reaction using fluorescence, a technique called real-time PCR or quantitative PCR. Combined RT-PCR and qPCR are routinely used for analysis of gene expression and quantification of viral RNA i

    Since its introduction in 1977, Northern blot has been used extensively for RNA quantification despite its shortcomings: time-consuming technique, requires a large quantity of RNA for detection, and quantitatively inaccurate in the low abundance of RNA content. However, the discovery of reverse transcriptase during the study of viral replication of genetic material led to the development of RT-PCR, which has since displaced northern blot as the method of choice for RNA detection and quantificati

    In RT-PCR, the RNA template is first converted into a complementary DNA using a reverse transcriptase. The cDNA is then used as a template for exponential amplification using PCR. QT-NASBA is currently the most sensitive method of RNA detection available. The use of RT-PCR for the detection of RNA transcript has revolutionalized the study of gene expression in the following important ways: 1. Made it theoretically possible to detect the transcripts of practically any gene 2. Enabled sample ampli

    The exponential amplification via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction provides for a highly sensitive technique in which a very low copy number of RNA molecules can be detected. RT-PCR is widely used in the diagnosis of genetic diseases and, semiquantitatively, in the determination of the abundance of specific different RNA molecules within a cell or tissue as a measure of gene expression.

    Despite its major advantages, RT-PCR is not without drawbacks. The exponential growth of the reverse transcribed complementary DNA during the multiple cycles of PCR produces inaccurate end point quantification due to the difficulty in maintaining linearity. In order to provide accurate detection and quantification of RNA content in a sample, qRT-PCR was developed using fluorescence-based modification to monitor the amplification products during each cycle of PCR. The extreme sensitivity of the t

  10. polymerase chain reaction | Definition & Steps | Britannica

    www.britannica.com/science/polymerase-chain-reaction

    The polymerase chain reaction enables investigators to obtain the large quantities of DNA that are required for various experiments and procedures in molecular biology, forensic analysis, evolutionary biology, and medical diagnostics. polymerase chain reaction The three-step process of the polymerase chain reaction.

  11. ポリメラーゼ連鎖反応 - Wikipedia

    ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/ポリメラーゼ連鎖反応

    Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR、逆転写ポリメラーゼ連鎖反応) 逆転写酵素によりRNAをcDNAにしてからPCRを行う方法 。 Real-time polymerase chain reaction(Real-Time PCR、リアルタイムPCR) DNA断片を発光させて専用の光学機器を使って検出する方法 。

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