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  1. May 06, 2011 · Category: General Knowledge. The following is a List of Countries That Have a Semi-Presidential Republic. Semi-Presidential Republic – A Semi-Presidential Republic is a system of government in...

  2. Mar 22, 2019 · A host of other countries in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Europe have a semi-presidential system. In the past, some parliamentary or presidential democracies have adopted a semi-presidential system. Armenia abandoned the presidential system in 1994 for the semi-presidential while Georgia also did the same in 2004.

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    How are presidential systems found in non democratic countries?

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    European Union

    Following the end of World War II, several movements began advocating a European federation, such as the Union of European Federalists and the European Movement, founded in 1948. Those organizations exercised influence in the European unification process, but never in a decisive way.[citation needed] Although the drafts of both the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe mentioned federalism, the reference never made it to the text of the treaties adopted by co...


    The Federal Republic of Cameroonoperated between 1961 and 1972.


    Czechoslovakia, until the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic separated in 1993.


    During the French Revolution, especially in 1793, "federalism" had an entirely different meaning. It was a political movement to weaken the central government in Paris by devolving power to the provinces.

    United Arab Emirates

    The UAE is a federal absolute monarchy of the six ruling families of the United Arab Emirates with Emir of each Emirate being an absolute monarch and the Emir of Abu Dhabi being also the President of the UAE.


    Federalism in Argentina was the result of a long lasting debate and several civil wars after the May Revolution of 1810 and subsequently, the independence in 1816. There were several failed attempts to establish both unitary and federal governments. With the establishment of the first successful and current constitution in 1853, the debate was sealed and Argentina adopted a federal system. At that time there were still several territories under federal administration which have since acquired...


    In Canada the system of federalism is described by the division of powers between the federal parliament and the country's provincial governments. Under the Constitution Act (previously known as the British North America Act of 1867), specific powers of legislation are allotted. Section 91 of the constitution gives rise to federal authority for legislation, whereas section 92 gives rise to provincial powers. For matters not directly dealt with in the constitution, the federal government retai...


    Nepal is a country with geographical diversity. Nepal has been practising unitary form of government since unification by Prithvi Narayan Shah. However, this system was not able to achieve the development goals of the country and has been described as an "exclusive form of rule" by its critics.[citation needed] Federalism has been seen as the answer to solving regional inequality and reducing the economic, social and religious discrimination[citation needed]; the country has transformed into...

    Russian Federation

    The post-Imperial nature of Russian subdivision of government changed towards a generally autonomous model which began with the establishment of the USSR (of which Russia was governed as part). It was liberalized in the aftermath of the Soviet Union, with the reforms under Boris Yeltsin preserving much of the Soviet structure while applying increasingly liberal reforms to the governance of the constituent republics and subjects (while also coming into conflict with Chechen secessionist rebels...


    On 1 January 1901, the dominion of Australia officially came into existence as a federation. The Australian continent was colonised in 1788 by the United Kingdom, which subsequently established six, eventually self-governing, colonies there. In the 1890s the governments of these colonies all held referendums on becoming the unified, self-governing "Commonwealth of Australia" within the British Empire. When all the colonies voted in favour of federation, the Federation of Australia commenced,...


    In Brazil, the fall of the monarchy in 1889 by a military coup d'état led to the rise of the presidential system, headed by Deodoro da Fonseca. Aided by well-known jurist Ruy Barbosa, Fonseca established federalism in Brazil by decree, but this system of government would be confirmed by every Brazilian constitution since 1891, although some of them would distort some of the federalist principles. The 1937 federal government had the authority to appoint State Governors (called intervenors) at...


    Germany and the European Union present the only examples of federalism in the world where members of the federal "upper houses" (the German Bundesrat, i.e. the Federal Council; and the European Council) are neither elected nor appointed but comprise members or delegates of the governments of their constituents. The United States had a similar system until 1913, where prior to the 17th Amendment, Senators were delegates of the state elected by the state legislatures rather than the citizens. A...


    Federalism in the Kingdom of Belgium is an evolving system. Belgian federalism is a twin system which reflects both the 1. linguistic communities of the country, French (ca. 40% of the total population), Dutch (ca. 59%), and to a much lesser extent German(ca. 1%) and the 2. geographically defined Regions (federated States: Brussels-Capital (de facto Greater Brussels), Flanders and Wallonia). The last two correspond to the language areas in Belgium, Wallonia hosting both the bulk of the French...

    Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Bosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of two entities: Republika Srpska and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the latter itself a federation.


    Iraq adapted an asymmetrical federal system on 15 October 2005, and formally recognised the Kurdistan Region as the country's first and currently only federal region, with the method of creating federal entities enshrined in the Constitution of Iraq.

    South Africa

    Although South Africa bears some elements of a federal system, such as the allocation of certain powers to provinces, it is nevertheless constitutionally and functionally a devolved unitary state.


    Spain is a unitary state with a high level of decentralisation, often regarded as a federal system in all but name or a "federation without federalism". The country has been quoted as being "an extraordinarily decentralized country", with the central government accounting for just 18% of public spending, 38% for the regional governments, 13% for the local councils, and the remaining 31% for the social security system. The current Spanish constitutionhas been implemented in such a way that, in...

  4. Jun 01, 2011 · More than 50 countries currently have semi-presidential constitutions, starting with Finland, which adopted the idea in 1919. The system spread slowly — by the end of the 1960s there were only eight semi-presidential countries. But during the democratization wave of the early 1990s, 29 countries ratified semi-presidential constitutions.

  5. the following countries have semi-presidential systems: algeria, azerbaijan, burkina faso, cape verde, democratic republic of the congo, republic of the congo, east timor, egypt, france, guinea-bissau, haiti, lithuania, madagascar, mali, mauritania, mongolia, mozambique, namibia, niger, palestine, poland, portugal, romania, russia, são tomé and …

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  6. May 15, 2016 · In this context, we ask the following questions: firstly, what is the relationship between semi-presidentialism in the formal constitution and the verticality of actual power relations in these five countries; secondly, to what extent, if any, have presidential institutions been responsible for the relative performance of democracy in these countries; and thirdly, in what ways have particular ...

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