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  1. Constantine the Great - Wikipedia

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    Kōnstantînos; 27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from 306 to 337. Born in Naissus, Dacia Mediterranea (now Niš, Serbia), he was the son of Flavius Constantius, a Roman army officer born in Dardania who became one of the four emperors of the Tetrarchy.

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  2. Constantine the Great - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Constantine_the_Great
    • Early Life
    • Emperor
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    Constantine (Latin: Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantinus; Ancient Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, romanized: Kōnstantînos) was born in Naissus (Niš, Serbia). He was born on 27 February. The Calendar of Philocalus and the works of the Latin writer Polemius Silvius both say Constantine was born in 272 or 273. The Latin historian Eutropius wrote the same information. However, the Greek historian and bishop Eusebius of Caesareawrote that Constantine was born around the year 285. Constantine's father was Constantius, who later became Roman emperor. Constantine's mother was Helena. She was not from the nobility. The Greek historian Procopius wrote that Helena had come from Drepanon, a city in Bithynia. The Latin theologian Ambrose wrote that Helena was a stabularia, 'stable-girl'. Helena and Constantius may not have married, and Helena may have been Constantius's concubine. Constantine was a military tribune in the Roman army by 293, the year his father became caesar(a junior Roman emperor) on 23 Mar...

    306–310

    The Consularia Constantinopolitana says that Constantius I died on 25 July 306 in Eboracum (York, England). There, on the same day, the army of Constantius made Constantine augustus. (Later, around August 306, the augustus Galerius agreed that Constantine was caesar, but not that he was augustus.) Roman Egyptaccepted Constantine was an emperor. In autumn 306 or early the next year, Constantine made a military campaign against the Franks. Constantine said that he was Roman consul for the first...

    310–315

    On 30 April 311, the augustus Galerius made a edict. The Edict of Serdica mostly ended the persecution of Christianity in the Roman Empire. At the start of May, Galerius died.Constantine was Roman consul for the second time in 312. Constantine was consul for the third time in 313. Constantine fought a civil war with Maxentius. The Calendar of Philocalus says that the Battle of the Milvian Bridge happened on the 28 October 313. In this battle, Constantine's army overcame the army of Maxentius....

    315–320

    On 27 September 315 Constantine went away from Rome. There was another ceremony (a profectio) when Constantine went out of the city. At some time, Constantine fought a civil war with his co-emperor Licinius. The Calendar of Philocalus says that Constantine's army overcame Licinius's army at the Battle of Cibalae on 8 October 314, but historians are not in agreement about the date. It may have been in 316. After this civil war, Constantine and Licinius made peace. This was either at the end of...

    Eusebius of Caesarea's Life of Constantine says that Constantine died at Ancyrona, near Nicomedia (İzmit, Turkey). He died on 22 May 337.

    Constantine was the first Christian Roman emperor. His rule changed the Christian Church greatly. In February 313, Constantine met with Licinius in Milan where they made the Edict of Milan. The edict said that Christians could believe what they wanted. This stopped people from punishing Christians, who had often been martyred, or killed for their faith. It also returned the property which had been taken away from them. In 311, Galerius had made a similar edict, though it did not return any property to them. In pagan Rome before this, it had been against the law to practise Christianity, and Christians had often been tortured or killed. Constantine protected them. He went on to organize the whole Christian Church at the First Council of Nicea, even though he himself did not get baptizeduntil near the end of his life. Constantine did not support Christianity alone. After winning the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, he built the Arch of Constantine) to celebrate, but the arch was decorate...

    Media related to Constantine the Greatat Wikimedia Commons
    Firth, John B. "Constantine the Great, the Reorganisation of the Empire and the Triumph of the Church". Archived from the original (BTM) on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
    Letters of Constantine: Book 1, Book 2, & Book 3
  3. Constantine the Great and Christianity - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Constantine_the_Great_and

    During the reign of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (AD 306–337), Christianity began to transition to the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. Historians remain uncertain about Constantine's reasons for favoring Christianity, and theologians and historians have often argued about which form of early Christianity he subscribed to.

  4. Constantine the Great - Wikipedia

    sco.wikipedia.org › wiki › Constantine_the_Great

    Constantine the Great (Laitin: Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; 27 Februar c. 272 – 22 Mey 337), forby kent as Constantine I or Saunt Constantine, wis Roman Emperor frae 306 tae 337. Constantine wis the son o Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman airmy officer, an his consort Helena.

  5. Constantine - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Constantine
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    Algeria

    1. Constantine, Algeria, the nation's third largest city and capital of Constantine Province 2. Constantine Province, surrounding the city of the same name 3. Beylik of Constantine, an administrative unit of the Regency of Algiers 4. Constantine (departement), similar area during French Algeria

    Serbia

    1. Constantine the Great Airport, Niš, Serbia

    Switzerland

    1. Constantine, Switzerland, a municipality in the canton of Vaud

    Constantine (album), an album by Constantine Maroulis
    Constantine, a frog character who resembles Kermit the Frog and is the foremost criminal in the 2014 film Muppets Most Wanted
  6. Constantine XI Palaiologos - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Constantine_XI_Palaiologos
    • Early Life
    • Despot of The Morea
    • Reign as Emperor
    • Fall of Constantinople
    • Legacy
    • See Also
    • References

    Family and background

    Constantine Dragases Palaiologos was born on 8 February 1405[n 3] as the fourth son of Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos (r. 1391–1425), the eighth emperor of the Palaiologos dynasty. Constantine's mother (from whom he took his second last name) was Helena Dragaš, the daughter of Serbian ruler Konstantin Dejanović. Constantine is frequently described as Porphyrogénnētos("born in the purple"), a distinction granted to sons born to a reigning emperor in the imperial palace. Manuel ruled a disintegr...

    Early career

    After an unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Constantinople in 1422, Manuel II suffered a stroke and was left paralyzed in one side of his body. He lived for another three years, but the empire's government was effectively in the hands of Constantine's brother John. Thessaloniki was also under siege by the Ottomans; to prevent it from falling into their hands, John gave the city to the Republic of Venice. As Manuel II had once hoped years ago, John hoped to rally support from Western Europe, and he...

    Early rule in the Morea

    The transfer of Tocco's conquered Moreot territories to Constantine complicated the Morea's government structure. Since his brother Theodore refused to step down as despot, the despotate became governed by two members of the imperial family for the first time since its creation in 1349. Soon thereafter, the younger Thomas (aged 19) was also appointed as a third Despot of the Morea, which meant that the nominally undivided despotate had effectively disintegrated into three smaller principaliti...

    Second tenure as regent

    In March 1432, Constantine, possibly desiring to be closer to Mystras, made a new territorial agreement (presumably approved by Theodore and John VIII) with Thomas. Thomas agreed to cede his fortress Kalavryta to Constantine, who made it his new capital, in exchange for Elis, which Thomas made his new capital. Relationships between the three despots eventually soured. John VIII had no sons to succeed him and it was thus assumed that his successor would be one of his four surviving brothers (A...

    Second marriage and Ottoman threats

    Despite having been relieved of his duties as regent upon John's return, Constantine stayed in the capital for the rest of 1440. He may have stayed in order to find a suitable wife, wishing to remarry since it had been more than ten years since Theodora's death. He decided on Caterina Gattilusio, daughter of Dorino I Gattilusio, the Genoese lord of the island Lesbos. Sphrantzes was sent to Lesbos in December 1440 to propose and arrange the marriage. In late 1441, Constantine sailed to Lesbos...

    Accession to the throne

    Theodore, once Despot of the Morea, died in June 1448 and on 31 October that same year, John VIII Palaiologos died in Constantinople. Compared to his other living brothers, Constantine was the most popular of the Palaiologoi, both in the Morea and in the capital. It was well known that John's favored successor was Constantine and ultimately, the will of Helena Dragaš (who also preferred Constantine), prevailed in the matter. Both Thomas, who appeared to have had no intention of claiming the t...

    Initial concerns

    One of Constantine's most pressing concerns was the Ottomans. One of his first acts as emperor, just two weeks after arriving in the capital, was to attempt to secure the empire by arranging a truce with Murad II. He sent an ambassador, Andronikos Iagaris, to the sultan. Iagaris was successful, and the agreed-upon truce also included Constantine's brothers in the Morea to secure the province from further Ottoman attacks. In order to remove his rebellious brother Demetrios from the capital and...

    Search for allies

    Shortly after Murad II's death, Constantine was quick to send envoys to the new sultan Mehmed II in an attempt to arrange a new truce. Mehmed supposedly received Constantine's envoys with great respect and put their minds to rest through swearing by Allah, the Prophet Muhammad, the Quran, and the angels and archangelsthat he would live in peace with the Byzantines and their emperor for the rest of his life. Constantine was unconvinced and suspected that Mehmed's mood could abruptly change in...

    Siege

    An Ottoman fleet attempted to get into the Golden Horn while Mehmed began bombarding Constantinople's land walls. Foreseeing this possibility, Constantine had constructed a massive chain laid across the Golden Horn which prevented the fleet's passage. The chain was only lifted temporarily a few days after the siege began to allow the passage of three Genoese ships sent by the papacy and a large ship with food sent by Alfonso V of Aragon and Naples. The arrival of these ships on 20 April, and...

    Final days and final assault

    The Byzantines observed strange and ominous signs in the days leading up to the final Ottoman assault on the city. On 22 May, there was a lunar eclipse for three hours, harkening to a prophecy that Constantinople would fall when the moon was on wane. In order to encourage the defenders, Constantine commanded that the icon of Mary, the city's protector, was to be carried in a procession through the streets. The procession was abandoned when the icon slipped from its frame and the weather turne...

    Death

    Constantine died the day Constantinople fell. There were no known surviving eyewitnesses to the death of the emperor and none of his entourage survived to offer any credible account of his death. The Greek historian Michael Critobulus, who later worked in the service of Mehmed, wrote that Constantine died fighting the Ottomans. Later Greek historians accepted Critobulus's account, never doubting that Constantine died as a hero and martyr, an idea never seriously questioned in the Greek-speaki...

    Historiography

    Constantine's death marked the end of the Byzantine Empire, an institution tracing its origin to Constantine the Great's foundation of Constantinople as the Roman Empire's new capital in 330. Even as their realm gradually became more restricted to only Greek-speaking lands, the people of the Byzantine Empire continually maintained that they were Romaioi (Romans), not Hellenes (Greeks); as such, Constantine's death also marked the definitive end of the Roman Empire that was founded by Augustus...

    Legends of Constantine's family

    Constantine's two marriages were brief and though he had attempted to find a third wife before the Fall of Constantinople, he died unmarried and without children. His closest surviving relatives were his surviving brothers in the Morea: Thomas and Demetrios. Despite this, there was a persistent story that Constantine had left a widow and several daughters. The earliest documented evidence of this idea can be found in a letter by Aeneas Silvius (the future Pope Pius II) to Pope Nicholas V, dat...

    Lamentations

    The Fall of Constantinople shocked Christians throughout Europe. In Orthodox Christianity, Constantinople and the Hagia Sophia became symbols of lost grandeur. In the Russian Nestor Iskander tale, the foundation of Constantinople (the New Rome) by Constantine the Great and its loss under an emperor by the same name was not seen as a coincidence, but as the fulfilling of the city's destiny, just as Old Rome had been founded by Romulus and lost under Romulus Augustulus. Andronikos Kallistos, a...

    Cited bibliography

    1. Carr, John C. (2015). Fighting Emperors of Byzantium. East Yorkshire: Pen & Sword. ISBN 978-1783831166.CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link) 2. Carroll, Margaret (2017). "Constantine XI Palaeologus; some problems of image". In Moffatt, Ann (ed.). Maistor: Classical, Byzantine and Renaissance Studies for Robert Browning. Brill. pp. 329–343. ISBN 9789004344617. 3. Clogg, Richard (1992). A Concise History of Greece (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80872-3.CS1 ma...

    Cited web sources

    1. Harris, Jonathan (2019). "19.01.05 Philippides, Constantine XI Dragaš Palaeologus". Indiana University – The Medieval Review. Retrieved 24 June 2020.CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link) 2. "29 Μαϊου 1453: Όταν "η Πόλις εάλω..." [29 May 1453: When the City Fell...]. iefemerida.com (in Greek). 29 May 2012. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.

  7. Helena, mother of Constantine I - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Helena_(empress)

    Flavia Julia Helena, or Saint Helena, was the mother of Roman emperor Constantine the Great. She was born outside of the noble classes, a Greek, possibly in the Greek city of Drepana, Bithynia in Asia Minor. Helena ranks as an important figure in the history of Christianity and of the world due to her influence on her son. In her final years, she made a religious tour of Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem, during which ancient tradition claims that she discovered the True Cross. The Eastern Orthodox

  8. Constantine the Great - OrthodoxWiki

    orthodoxwiki.org › Constantine_the_Great
    • Early Life
    • Constantine and Christianity
    • Hymns
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • Sources
    • External Links

    He was born at Naissus, today's city of Niš in Upper Moesia (modern Serbia and Montenegro), to Constantius I Chlorus and an innkeeper's daughter, Helen. Constantine was well educated and served at the court of Diocletian in Nicomediaas a kind of hostage after the appointment of his father Constantius, a general, as one of the two Caesars (at that time a junior emperor), in the Tetrarchy in 293. In 305, the Augustus, Maximian, abdicated, and Constantius succeeded to the position. However, he died in 306. Constantine managed to be at his deathbed in Eboracum (York, England), where troops loyal to his father's memory proclaimed him Emperor. For the next 18 years, he fought a series of battles and wars that left him first as emperor of the west, and then as supreme ruler of the Roman Empire.

    Constantine is perhaps best known for being the first Roman Emperor to endorse Christianity, traditionally presented as a result of an omen — a chi-rho in the sky, with the inscription "By this sign shalt thou conquer" — before his victory in the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312, when Constantine is said to have instituted the new standard to be carried into battle, called the labarum. Christian historians ever since Lactantius have adhered to the view that Constantine "adopted" Christianity as a kind of replacement for the official Roman paganism. Though the document called the "Donation of Constantine" was proved a forgery (though not until the 15th century, when the stories of Constantine's conversionwere long-established "facts") it was attributed as documenting the conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity for centuries. Even Christian skeptics have accepted this formulation, though seeing Constantine's policy as a political rather than spiritual move. By the end of the 3rd...

    Troparion(Tone 8) 1. Having seen the figure of the Cross in the heavens, 2. And like Paul not having received his call from men, O Lord, 3. Your apostle among rulers, the Emperor Constantine, 4. Has been set by Your hand as ruler over the Imperial City 5. That he preserved in peace for many years, 6. Through the prayers of the Theotokos, O only lover of mankind. Kontakion(Tone 3) 1. Today Constantine and his mother Helen 2. Reveal the precious Cross, 3. The weapon of the faithful against their enemies. 4. For our sakes, it has been shown to be a great sign, and fearsome in battle.

    Barnes, (Prof.) Timothy David. Constantine and Eusebius.Harvard University Press, 1981. ISBN 9780674165311
    Bruun, Patrick. "The Christian Signs on the Coins of Constantine." Arctos, Series 2, vol.3 (1962), pp.5-35.
    Elliott, Thomas George. The Christianity of Constantine the Great.University of Scranton Press, 1996. 366pp. ISBN 9780940866591
    Henry Wace Ed., A Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D., article: Silvester, bishop of Rome, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc. edition (rights: Public Dom...

    Wikipedia 1. Constantine I 2. Constantine I and Christianity 3. Donation of Constantine Other 1. OCA: Equal of the Apostles Emperor Constantine 2. Constantine & Helen, Equal to the Apostles GOARCH: Constantine & Helen 3. Robert Arakaki. Constantine The Great: Roman Emperor, Christian Saint, History's Turning Point. Antiochian Orthodox Christian 4. Saint Constantine the Great. Two part article on 33Knots Blog. Archdiocese of North America. 1. Christian Symbolism on bronze coins of Constantine the Great. 2. Constantine the Greatarticle on ServingHistory.com. Icons 1. Icon of St. Constantine 2. Icon of Ss. Constantine and Helen

  9. Constantine the Great. The greatest of the Roman Emperors ...

    medium.com › @christoss200 › constantine-the-great
    • The Tetrarchy — Constantine’s Early Years
    • Constantine The General — Reuniting The Roman Empire
    • A New Capital — The City of Constantine
    • Constantine as An Administrator
    • The Christian Emperor— Equal to The Apostles

    In 284 Diocletian, a military officer, came to the Roman throne. For much of the third century the Roman Empire had been plagued by infighting, secession, coups and civil wars. The Roman Empire faced a resurgent Persian Empire under the Sassanid Dynasty and invasions by barbarian tribes in the Rhine and Danube fronts. Realizing that the empire was too large and had too many problems for a single ruler to handle, Diocletian administratively divided the empire in two halves, with himself ruling over the Greek East while his colleague Maximian would rule over the Latin West. The two of them would be Augusti. In 293, Diocletian further divided the empire as he and Maximian appointed a Caesar each in their realms to aid them. This administrative system was named the Tetrarchy (rule of four). Constantius, Constantine’s father, was Caesar of Maximian. Constantius was given command over Gaul and Britannia, where he had to put down rebellions and repel barbarian invaders. Flavius Valerius Co...

    Constantine showed great military skills and was a competent military commander. In his battles against both barbarians and Roman rivals, Constantine showed his skills on the battlefield as a tactician. In a series of campaigns he managed to reunify the disunited Roman Empire and successfully face barbarian invaders. After his promotion to Emperor in 306 in Britain, he remained there and drove back the tribes of Picts, securing the Roman control in the northwest. In the winter of 306–307, the Franks invaded Gaul but Constantine defeated them and drove them back beyond the Rhine, capturing two of their kings in the process. In 308 he raided the territory of the Bructeri and in 310 he fought against the Franks in the northern Rhine. His greatest military victories, however, were achieved against his Roman opponents. In the spring of 312, he and his army (of about 40,000 men) crossed the Cottian Alps to face Maxentius, Maximian’s son who had seized control of Rome and northern Italy. H...

    The foundation of Constantinople by Constantine as a new imperial capital would eventually move the center of the empire towards of the East. The city was founded in 324 and dedicated on 11 May 330. Constantinople would serve as an imperial capital for more than 16 centuries (first as Byzantine and then as Ottoman capital). By the third century, Rome was no longer the center of the Empire; soldier-emperors tended to eschew Rome (which was still the capital) and the court followed behind them. During the Tetrarchy, the Tetrarchs established their own capitals/centers outside of Italy. Diocletian himself established his base in Nicomedia. Other Tetrarchic capitals/centers included Mediolanum, Sirmium, and Trevorum, all close to the frontiers. Rome never really recovered its previous dominant position as capital of the Roman Empire; in the fifth century, the Western Roman Empire had as its capital the city of Ravenna. The reason for this has to do with the changing needs of the Empire;...

    Constantine was a capable ruler and administrator who undertook reforms necessary for the stabilization of the Roman Empire. His reformist agenda was a continuation of Diocletian’s earlier reforms, so Diocletian must get part of the credit for those reforms, however Constantine both improved those reforms and, in some cases, moved to different directions than Diocletian’s agenda. Constantine reversed the pro-equestrian trend of his predecessors, who since the mid-3rd century had been favoring equestrians, and instead raised many administrative posts to the senatorial rank and opened those offices to the old aristocracy. Although the senate remained devoid of any real powers, the senators could now compete with upstart bureaucrats for the high offices. Constantine thus reintegrated the old senatorial elite into the imperial administration. His most important reform though was his monetary one. Runaway inflation had been a major problem for the empire since the crisis of the third cen...

    Constantine’s decision to embrace the Christian religion would have momentous effects in European and global history. While Christianity was spreading in the Greek East, the Christians were still a minority among the empire’s subjects. The growth of Christianity in the Greek East can be attributed to a number of factors. The most important is that there was a lingua franca in the Roman East that allowed the spread of the word of the new religion among ethnically different populations: that language was Greek (Koine Greek, to be more precise). That was a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great (20/21 July 356 BC — 10/11 June 323 BC) and the subsequent Hellenistic Kingdoms that emerged after his death. The eastern territories of Rome coincided in large part with the western territories of Alexander’s Empire/Hellenistic Kingdoms. Another reason for the growth of Christianity was its appeal to the lower classes and slaves. Christianity offered hope of an afterlife that was entici...

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