Greek (Modern Greek: Ελληνικά, romanized: Elliniká; Ancient Greek: Ἑλληνική, romanized: Hellēnikḗ) is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of lan
Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the origin and nature of the world, the li
法拉盛这个名称来自于十七世纪荷兰殖民者。纽约地区当时名称为新阿姆斯特丹是荷兰的殖民地。原始的法拉盛村是在1645年在荷兰西印度公司管辖下建立的。该名称源自荷兰西南方的一个名为夫利辛亨的城市。当时，夫利辛亨市是荷兰西印度公司的主要港口。 据说夫利辛亨的意思是“盐草原”，而且很适合形容当时法拉盛湾的潮水。现在法拉盛的拼写“Flushing”是夫利辛亨（Vlissingen）的英语译音。 当时，村里主要的居民是英国移民，包括法拉盛著名历史人物“江邦”（约翰·邦恩（英语：John Bowne）），他后来领导了反对虐待贵格会的运动。那时的彼得·史岱文森领导的荷兰殖民政府不允许贵格会公开做礼拜。即使到现在，仍然可以在纽约市的法拉盛区找到昔日贵格会人士的踪迹，例如位于邦恩街（Bowne Street）上江邦的住宅（John Bowne House）、邦恩街社区教堂（Bowne Street Community Church）、以及北方大道上的法拉盛贵格会会堂（Flushing Quaker Meeting House）。于此宗教运动而诞生的是美国权利法案宗教自由法案的前身《法拉盛抗议书》，在1...
1664年，英国控制了新阿姆斯特丹，驱逐了荷兰人，改名为英属纽约省。1683年，当皇后郡成立时，“法拉盛镇”是最初的五个郡之一。许多提及法拉盛的历史都是指这个镇，西至牛顿（现法拉盛河）、南至牙买加、东至亨普斯特德（现拿骚郡线）。1898年，当皇后成为纽约一个行政区时城镇撤销，今天的“法拉盛”指的区域更小，如当时是的法拉盛村。 北美的第一批商业苗圃就是起源于法拉盛地区。最大的三个苗圃为Prince、Bloodgood和Parsons苗圃，其中两个被现在路名而纪念。凯辛娜公园（Kissena Park）北部是当时Parsons苗圃的所在地，至今公园里还有很多不同种类的异国树木。凯辛娜大道（Kissena Boulevard）上的许多交叉路是由当时苗圃里的树名而来：Ash（梣）、Beech（山毛榉）、Cherry（桃）、Poplar（杨）、Quince（榅桲）、Rose（蔷薇）等等。曼哈顿建立中央公园时，许多树就是从法拉盛的苗圃而移植。 在美国独立战争时期，法拉盛和大多数皇后郡县倾向不列颠，驻扎帝国军队。苏格兰高地的一个营驻扎于此。在长岛会战时，大陆军官内森·黑尔靠近法拉盛湾，可能是要...
据2010年美国人口普查数据，法拉盛人口为72,008，相比2000的69,362多了2,646人（3.8%）。占地853.06英亩（345.22公顷），法拉盛人口密度为84.4名居民每英亩（54,000名居民每平方英里；20,900名居民每平方千米）。 种族为白人9.5% （6,831）、非裔4.2% （3,016）、原住民0.1% （74）、亚裔69.2% （49,830）、太平洋群岛0.1% （59）、拉美裔14.9% （10,723）、其它族裔0.2% （172）、两种及以上1.8% （1,303）。
法拉盛东部和法拉盛下城一样有不少华裔。但那里也有不少爱尔兰裔、希腊裔、俄裔和意大利裔社区，以及印度裔、斯里兰卡裔、马来西亚裔和拉美裔，其中拉美裔多为哥伦比亚裔和萨尔多瓦裔。该地区比法拉盛下城多样性更明显，这是因为各族裔平均分配，彼此生意往来，而下城被华裔占据主流，夹杂了韩裔生意。 靠近贝赛的法拉盛东北部主要是意大利和希腊裔社区，有不少意大利和希腊面包坊、杂货铺和餐馆。西北部混杂了犹太裔、希腊裔和意大利裔。法拉盛中心族裔大多是白人、拉美人和亚裔。 富兰克林大道以南多为印度、巴基斯坦、阿富汗和孟加拉市场。早在七十年代，富兰克林大道以南就聚集了大量南亚生意，是北美最早的小印度。北美印度神庙协会（梵语: श्री महावल्लभ गणपति देवस्थानम्, 泰米尔语: ஸ்ரீ மகா வல்லப கணபதி தேவஸ்தானம்）位于法拉盛45-57邦恩街，在美国是个非常传统的印度神庙。
法拉盛的历史市政厅位于北方大道靠近缅街，现在用于音乐厅和文化中心。其它纽约市列为古迹的建筑有江邦故居、金士兰庄园、法拉盛高中、黑人发明家路易斯·拉蒂默（Lewis Latimer）的住宅、雷电华剧院、和1964年世界博览会的象征地球仪。江邦故居北边的一棵山毛榉树种于1847年也曾经是纽约市古迹，但是此树在1998年死了，死于151岁。现在新的一棵树开始发芽。 许多名人之前也在法拉盛出生或长大，里根总统的夫人、女演员南希·里根在1921年出生于法拉盛。
法拉盛拥有许多新住宅及商业建筑，并发展蓬勃，展现很多具创意的建筑设计。横贯法拉盛的主要街道包括：缅街（Main Street）、罗斯福大道（Roosevelt Avenue）、北方大道（Northern Boulevard）、王子街（Prince Street）、联合大道（Union Turnpike）、帕森大道（Parsons Boulevard）、凯辛娜大道（Kissena Boulevard），以及164街（164th Street）。 法拉盛商业区是皇后区北部的一个重要的交通中心，公共交通非常便利，有纽约市地铁的7号线和直达宾夕法尼亚车站的长岛铁路（LIRR）华盛顿港线(Port Washington Line)的车站。拉瓜迪亚机场到法拉盛只需十几分钟的车程。678号州际公路、495号州际公路和Grand Central Parkway都从法拉盛附近经过。 纽约大都会运输署（MTA）的Q12, Q13, Q15, Q15A, Q16, Q17, Q19, Q20A, Q20B, Q25, Q26, Q27, Q28, Q34, Q44 SBS, Q48, Q50, Q58, Q65, Q66途径法拉盛，拿骚县的n20G终点站也在法拉盛。其中，Q48路连接拉瓜迪亚机场和法拉盛，每20分钟一班，车程约半小时。Q20A,Q20B,Q44SBS（SBS指Selected Bus Service，是MTA运营的高频发车的快速公交）连接法拉盛和Jamaica车站，在Jamaica转乘肯尼迪机场捷运(JFK AirTrain)可抵达JFK机场各航站楼。具体的地铁公交以及通勤铁路信息请参阅MTA官网
缅街和罗斯福大道交叉口地区是所谓的亚裔商业区。此交叉口包括新世界购物中心和一家梅西百货店。 法拉盛华人的地标性建筑物新世界商城和飞越皇后购物中心。 新世界商城是集超市、购物、娱乐、餐食于一体的东岸华裔最大的综合性商城，位于法拉盛中心地段（缅街兴罗斯福大道交口）交通极为方便，7号地铁的进出站口就设在商场的两边，多条公路车段路经在此设站。商场总面积27万尺，共六层，地上三层地下三层。装修华丽高雅，风格现代。 一楼：新世界超市：地尺45000尺，是法拉盛社区最大的超市。新鲜的蔬菜水果、游水海鲜、肉食米面、燕翅干品、生活百货，应有尽有。 二楼：新世界购物中心：58个名牌商铺，汇集时尚潮流。 L层：新世界美食广场：33个店面，500多个餐位，荟萃中西美食。 商场地下二层、三层：大型停车场，300多个车位。 法拉盛含有许多合价的异族风味餐馆。新世界购物中心的美食城号称东岸亚裔最好的美食城，几乎汇集所有华裔（也包括日韩美食）美食，周边地区甚至波士顿地区，都有大量华人到纽约法拉盛新世界美食城来品尝美食。中国菜烹调可以在王子街附近找到。韩国料理可以在北方大道上找到。大学点大道上有一些拉丁美洲的餐馆。 美国华裔创设的第一证券总部亦设立于法拉盛。
法拉盛的犯罪率从1990年来下降了很多，同步与纽约全市的犯罪率。最近几年，法拉盛见到了少数的街头暴力，包括帮派有关的刺伤和射击。2000年，缅街上的温蒂快餐店里5名职工被凶手射死。 由于社区里的MS-13帮派与纽约市其他帮派（血帮（英语：Bloods）与瘸帮（英语：Crips））的竞争对社区里造成了许多问题。2006年圣诞前夕，一名15岁的男孩在他家门口被枪杀。2007年5月19日，在邦恩街上一名21岁的男子被枪杀。两次枪杀都被怀疑与MS-13有关。 进入2010年代后，法拉盛接连发生华人遇袭身亡事件，治安程度再次引起全球华人关注。2010年5月20日来自黑龙江省牡丹江市的留学生姚宇被墨西哥裔男子Carlos S.Cruz强奸并用铁棍袭击脑部，导致前者被医院证实脑死亡，而事发时法拉盛周边的目击者未有一人出手援助或是报警，令人叹惜。 社区里也有不少的亚裔帮派。凯辛娜（Kissena）是凯辛娜公园里的湖泊之名。当时的园艺家Samuel Parsons（英语：Samuel Parsons）命名此名。名字来源于印第安语言里的奥吉布瓦语，意思是“冷水”。现在，法拉盛地区的很多地名都被称为凯辛娜。据说摇滚乐团Kiss合唱团的名字是1973年他们在皇后区演出后，按照名称凯辛娜（Kissena）所起名的。现在凯辛娜公园的狭窄段落是原用于铁路地役权的土地。
Ancient Greek phonology is the reconstructed phonology or pronunciation of Ancient Greek. This article mostly deals with the pronunciation of the standard Attic dialect of the fif
Aug 26, 2021 · 纽约市哥伦比亚大学（英语： Columbia University in the City of New York ；通称：“哥伦比亚大学”；简称：“哥大”）是一所坐落于美国 纽约 曼哈顿 上城 晨边高地的私立 研究型大学，是美洲大学协会的12个创始校之一，及NCAA体育赛事联盟常春藤盟校的成员。
- Monumental Sculpture
- Coin Design
- Engraved Gems
By convention, finely painted vessels of all shapes are called "vases", and there are over 100,000 significantly complete surviving pieces, giving (with the inscriptions that many carry) unparalleled insights into many aspects of Greek life. Sculptural or architectural pottery, also very often painted, are referred to as terracottas, and also survive in large quantities. In much of the literature, "pottery" means only painted vessels, or "vases". Pottery was the main form of grave goods deposited in tombs, often as "funerary urns" containing the crematedashes, and was widely exported. The famous and distinctive style of Greek vase-painting with figures depicted with strong outlines, with thin lines within the outlines, reached its peak from about 600 to 350 BC, and divides into the two main styles, almost reversals of each other, of black-figure and red-figure painting, the other colour forming the background in each case. Other colours were very limited, normally to small areas of...
Fine metalwork was an important art in ancient Greece, but later production is very poorly represented by survivals, most of which come from the edges of the Greek world or beyond, from as far as France or Russia. Vessels and jewellery were produced to high standards, and exported far afield. Objects in silver, at the time worth more relative to gold than it is in modern times, were often inscribed by the maker with their weight, as they were treated largely as stores of value, and likely to be sold or re-melted before very long. During the Geometric and Archaic phases, the production of large metal vessels was an important expression of Greek creativity, and an important stage in the development of bronzeworking techniques, such as casting and repousse hammering. Early sanctuaries, especially Olympia, yielded many hundreds of tripod-bowl or sacrificial tripod vessels, mostly in bronze, deposited as votives. These had a shallow bowl with two handles raised high on three legs; in lat...
The Greeks decided very early on that the human form was the most important subject for artistic endeavour. Seeing their gods as having human form, there was little distinction between the sacred and the secular in art—the human body was both secular and sacred. A male nude of Apollo or Heracles had only slight differences in treatment to one of that year's Olympic boxing champion. In the Archaic Period the most important sculptural form was the kouros (plural kouroi), the standing male nude (See for example Biton and Kleobis). The kore (plural korai), or standing clothed female figure, was also common, but since Greek society did not permit the public display of female nudity until the 4th century BC, the kore is considered to be of less importance in the development of sculpture.By the end of the period architectural sculpture on temples was becoming important. As with pottery, the Greeks did not produce sculpture merely for artistic display. Statues were commissioned either by ar...
Clay is a material frequently used for the making of votive statuettes or idols, even before the Minoan civilization and continuing until the Roman period. During the 8th century BC tombs in Boeotia often contain "bell idols", female statuettes with mobile legs: the head, small compared to the remainder of the body, is perched at the end of a long neck, while the body is very full, in the shape of a bell. Archaic heroontombs, for local heroes, might receive large numbers of crudely-shaped fig...
Figurines made of metal, primarily bronze, are an extremely common find at early Greek sanctuaries like Olympia, where thousands of such objects, mostly depicting animals, have been found. They are usually produced in the lost wax technique and can be considered the initial stage in the development of Greek bronze sculpture. The most common motifs during the Geometric period were horses and deer, but dogs, cattle and other animals are also depicted. Human figures occur occasionally. The produ...
Architecture (meaning buildings executed to an aesthetically considered design) ceased in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) until the 7th century, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. Since most Greek buildings in the Archaic and Early Classical periods were made of wood or mud-brick, nothing remains of them except a few ground-plans, and there are almost no written sources on early architecture or descriptions of buildings. Most of our knowledge of Greek architecture comes from the surviving buildings of the Late Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic and Roman periods (since ancient Roman architecture heavily used Greek styles), and from late written sources such as Vitruvius (1st century BC). This means that there is a strong bias towards temples, the most common major buildings to survive. Here the squared blocks of stone used for walls were useful for later buildings, and so often all that survives are...
Coins were (probably) invented in Lydia in the 7th century BC, but they were first extensively used by the Greeks, and the Greeks set the canon of coin design which has been followed ever since. Coin design today still recognisably follows patterns descended from ancient Greece. The Greeks did not see coin design as a major art form, although some were expensively designed by leading goldsmiths, especially outside Greece itself, among the Central Asian kingdoms and in Sicilian cities keen to promote themselves. Nevertheless, the durability and abundance of coins have made them one of the most important sources of knowledge about Greek aesthetics. Greek coinsare the only art form from the ancient Greek world which can still be bought and owned by private collectors of modest means. The most widespread coins, used far beyond their native territories and copied and forged by others, were the Athenian tetradrachm, issued from c. 510 to c. 38 BC, and in the Hellenistic age the Macedonian...
The Greeks seem to have valued painting above even sculpture, and by the Hellenistic period the informed appreciation and even the practice of painting were components in a gentlemanly education. The ekphrasis was a literary form consisting of a description of a work of art, and we have a considerable body of literature on Greek painting and painters, with further additions in Latin, though none of the treatises by artists that are mentioned have survived. Unfortunately we have hardly any of the most prestigious sort of paintings, on wood panel or in fresco, that this literature was concerned with. The contrast with vase-painting is total. There are no mentions of that in literature at all, but over 100,000 surviving examples, giving many individual painters a respectable surviving oeuvre. Our idea of what the best Greek painting was like must be drawn from a careful consideration of parallels in vase-painting, late Greco-Roman copies in mosaicand fresco, some very late examples of...
Mosaics were initially made with rounded pebbles, and later glass with tesserae which gave more colour and a flat surface. They were popular in the Hellenistic period, at first as decoration for the floors of palaces, but eventually for private homes. Often a central emblema picture in a central panel was completed in much finer work than the surrounding decoration. Xenia motifs, where a house showed examples of the variety of foods guests might expect to enjoy, provide most of the surviving specimens of Greek still-life. In general mosaic must be considered as a secondary medium copying painting, often very directly, as in the Alexander Mosaic. The Unswept Floor by Sosus of Pergamon (c. 200 BC) was an original and famous trompe-l'œil piece, known from many Greco-Roman copies. According to John Boardman, Sosus is the only mosaic artist whose name has survived; his Doves are also mentioned in literature and copied. However, Katherine M. D. Dunbabin asserts that two different mosaic a...
The engraved gem was a luxury art with high prestige; Pompey and Julius Caesar were among later collectors. The technique has an ancient tradition in the Near East, and cylinder seals, whose design only appears when rolled over damp clay, from which the flat ring type developed, spread to the Minoan world, including parts of Greece and Cyprus. The Greek tradition emerged under Minoan influence on mainland Helladicculture, and reached an apogee of subtlety and refinement in the Hellenistic period. Round or oval Greek gems (along with similar objects in bone and ivory) are found from the 8th and 7th centuries BC, usually with animals in energetic geometric poses, often with a border marked by dots or a rim. Early examples are mostly in softer stones. Gems of the 6th century are more often oval, with a scarab back (in the past this type was called a "scarabaeus"), and human or divine figures as well as animals; the scarab form was apparently adopted from Phoenicia. The forms are sophis...
The synthesis in the Archaic period of the native repertoire of simple geometric motifs with imported, mostly plant-based, motifs from further east created a sizeable vocabulary of ornament, which artists and craftsmen used with confidence and fluency. Today this vocabulary is seen above all in the large corpus of painted pottery, as well as in architectural remains, but it would have originally been used in a wide range of media, as a later version of it is used in European Neoclassicism. Elements in this vocabulary include the geometrical meander or "Greek key", egg-and-dart, bead and reel, Vitruvian scroll, guilloche, and from the plant world the stylized acanthus leaves, volute, palmette and half-palmette, plant scrolls of various kinds, rosette, lotus flower, and papyrus flower. Originally used prominently on Archaic vases, as figurative painting developed these were usually relegated to serve as borders demarcating edges of the vase or different zones of decoration. Greek arch...
纽约电影学院由身為电影和百老汇制片人的Jerry Sherlock于1992年創立。其原先設於「Tribeca」电影中心，而後在1994年搬至位於聯合廣場的大樓，這棟大樓原是民主黨 (美國)政治運作中心「Tammany Hall」所在地。
曾在纽约电影学院就讀过的知名人士包括： 1. 安潔莉娜·裘莉：好莱坞演员，联合国亲善大使） 2. 歐文·克萊（Owen Kline）：凱文·克萊（Kevin Kline）和菲比·凱斯（Phoebe Cates）的儿子 3. 马克思·史匹柏：史蒂芬·史匹柏史之子 4. 杰克·罗宾斯：提姆·羅賓斯之子 5. 葛林·漢瑟（Glen Hansard）：电影《Star》男主角和「The Frames」乐队的主唱 6. 畢·維納（Brett Ratner）：電影《尖峰时刻》與《X 战警》导演 7. Jessica Lee Rose：前YouTubeshow《lonelygirl15》的主角，目前是美国广播公司家庭节目《Greek》的女演员 8. 陳湘琪：台灣知名女演員 9. 蘇麗珊：香港知名女演員 10. 吳海昕：香港知名女演員