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  1. Charles VII (22 February 1403 – 22 July 1461), called the Victorious ( French: le Victorieux) or the Well-Served ( le Bien-Servi ), was King of France from 1422 to his death in 1461. In the midst of the Hundred Years' War, Charles VII inherited the throne of France under desperate circumstances. Forces of the Kingdom of England and the Duke ...

    • Biography
    • Legacy
    • Family
    • in The Arts
    • Sources

    Early life

    Born at the Hôtel Saint-Pol, the royal residence in Paris, Charles was given the title of comte de Ponthieu at his birth in 1403. He was the eleventh child and fifth son of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. His four elder brothers, Charles (1386), Charles (1392–1401), Louis (1397–1415) and John (1398–1417) had each held the title of Dauphin of France (heir to the French throne) in turn.All died childless, leaving Charles with a rich inheritance of titles.

    Dauphin

    Almost immediately after his accession to the title of Dauphin, Charles had to face threats to his inheritance, and he was forced to flee from Paris on 29 May 1418 after the partisans of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, had entered the city the previous night. By 1419, Charles had established his own court in Bourges and a Parlement in Poitiers. On 11 July of that same year, Charles and John the Fearless attempted a reconciliation by signing, on a small bridge near Pouilly-le-Fort, not fa...

    Treaty of Troyes

    At the death of his father, Charles VI, the succession was cast into doubt. The Treaty of Troyes, signed by Charles VI in 1420, mandated that the throne pass to the infant King Henry VI of England, the son of the recently deceased Henry V and Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI; however, Frenchmen loyal to the king of France regarded the treaty as invalid on grounds of coercion and Charles VI's diminished mental capacity. For those who did not recognize the treaty and believed the Dau...

    Although Charles VII's legacy is far overshadowed by the deeds and eventual martyrdom of Joan of Arc and his early reign was at times marked by indecisiveness and inaction, he was responsible for successes unprecedented in the history of the Kingdom of France. He succeeded in what four generations of his predecessors failed to do — the expulsion of the English and the conclusion of the Hundred Years' War. He had created France's first standing army since Roman times. In The Prince, Niccolo Machiavelli asserts that if his son Louis XIhad continued this policy, then the French would have become invincible. Charles VII secured himself against papal power by the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. He also established the University of Poitiersin 1432, and his policies brought some economic prosperity to his subjects.

    Children

    Charles married his second cousin Marie of Anjou on 18 December 1422. They were both great-grandchildren of King John II of France and his first wife Bonne of Bohemia through the male line. They had fourteen children[citation needed]:

    Mistresses

    1. Agnès Sorel, by whom he had three illegitimate daughters: 1.1. Marie, possibly born the summer of 1444. 1.2. Charlotte, m. Jacques de Brézé (their son, Louis de Brézé, seigneur d'Anet, in turn married Diane de Poitiers, herself ultimately a famous royal mistress). 2. Antoinette de Maignelais,cousin of Agnès Sorel.

    Appears as Charles, The Dauphin in Jean Anouilh's play The Lark
    Appears as Charles the Dauphin in George Bernard Shaw's play Saint Joan
    Appears as the Dauphin in Maxwell Anderson's Joan of Lorraine
    Appears as a significant character in Thomas Keneally's novel "Blood Red, Sister Rose".
    Hanawalt, Barbara (1998). The Middle Ages: An Illustrated History. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-510359-9.
    Taylor, Aline (2001). Isabel of Burgundy: The Duchess who played Politics in the Age of Joan of Arc, 1397–1471. Madison Books. ISBN 1-56833-227-0.
  2. Charles VII, king of France from 1422 to 1461, who succeeded—partly with the aid of Joan of Arc—in driving the English from French soil and in solidifying the administration of the monarchy. Before ascending the throne he was known as the Dauphin and was regent for his father, Charles VI, from

  3. Jun 04, 2017 · Charles VII (1403-1461) Roi de France (r.1422-1461) dit le Trésvictorieux Though a bold background detracts somewhat from this amateur site, an informative biography is followed by a substantial timeline of the king's life, at the Hundred Years' War Web Page.

    • Early Life
    • The Maid of Orléans
    • Close of Reign
    • Legacy
    • Children
    • Mistresses
    • Charles VII in The Arts
    • Sources

    Born in Paris, Charles was the fifth son of Charles VI of France and Isabella of Bavaria-Ingolstadt. His four elder brothers, Charles (1386), Charles (1392–1401), Louis (1397–1415) and John (1398–1417) had each held the title of Dauphin of France, heir to the French throne, in turn; each had died childless, leaving Charles with a rich inheritance of titles. Almost immediately after his accession to the title of Dauphin, Charles was forced to face the threat to his inheritance, being constrained to flee Paris in May 1418 after the soldiers of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy attempted to capture the city. In the following year, Charles attempted to make a reconciliation between himself and the Duke, meeting him on a bridge at Pouilly, near Melun, in July 1419. This proving insufficient, the two met again on 10 September 1419, on the bridge at Montereau. The Duke, despite previous history, proved over-trusting in his young cousin, assuming the meeting to be entirely peaceful and di...

    In 1429, however, came a change. Orléans had been under siege since October 1428. The English regent, the Duke of Bedford(the uncle of Henry VI) was advancing into the Duchy of Bar, ruled by Charles's brother-in-law, René. The French lords and soldiers loyal to Charles were becoming increasingly desperate. Meanwhile, in the little village of Domrémy, on the border between Lorraine and Champagne, a teenage girl named Jeanne d'Arc("Joan of Arc"), believing she had been given a divine mission, demanded of the Duke of Lorraine the soldiers and resources necessary to bring her to Chinon, and the Dauphin. Granted an escort of five veteran soldiers and a letter of referral to Charles by the governor of Vaucouleurs, Robert Baudricourt, Jeanne rode to Chinon, where Charles was in residence, arriving there on 10 March 1429. What followed would later pass into legend. When Jeanne arrived at Chinon, Charles—testing Jeanne's claim to recognize him despite having never seen him—disguised himself...

    Charles's later years were marked by increasing hostility between himself and his heir, Louis. Louis demanded real power to accompany his position as the Dauphin; Charles refused. Accordingly, Louis stirred dissent and made plots in attempts to destabilize his father. He quarrelled with his father's mistress, Agnès Sorel, on one occasion driving her with a bared sword into Charles's bed, according to one source. Eventually, in 1446, after Charles's last son, also named Charles, was born, the King banished the Dauphin to the Dauphiny. The two never met again; Louis thereafter refused the King's demands that he return to court, eventually fleeing to the protection of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, in 1456. In 1458, Charles became ill: a sore on his leg (an early symptom, perhaps, of diabetes or syphilis refused to heal, and the infection in it caused a serious fever. The King summoned Louis to him from his exile in Burgundy; but the Dauphin refused, and employed astrologers to for...

    Although Charles VII's legacy is far overshadowed by the deeds and eventual martyrdom of Joan of Arc, he himself was also responsible for successes unprecedented in the history of the Kingdom of France. When he died, France was for the first time since the Carolingian Emperors united under one ruler, and possessed its first standing army, which in time would yield the powerful gendarme cavalry companies, notable in the wars of the sixteenth century; he had also established the University of Poitiers in 1432, and his policies had brought some economic prosperity to his subjects. His rule as a monarch had at times been marked by indecisiveness and inaction, and his ending years marked by hostility between himself and his elder son; nonetheless, it is to his credit that he left his kingdom in condition better than he had found it.

    Charles married his second cousin Marie of Anjou on 18 December 1422. They were both great-grandchildren of King John II of France and his first wife Bonne of Bohemia through the male-line. Their children include: 1. Louis XI, King of France (1423–1483), married Charlotte of Savoy, by whom he had issue including King Charles VIII of France, Anne of France, and Joan of France, Duchess of Berry. 2. John of France (1424-25) 3. Radegonde de France (1428–44) 4. Catherine de Valois (1428-1446), married Charles de Charolais, future Charles le Téméraire, Duke of Burgundy, in 1440 5. Jacques de France (1432-1437) 6. Yolande de France (1434–1478), married the future Amadeus IX, Duke of Savoy in 1452. Upon his death in 1472, she became regent of Savoy. She was the mother of ten children. 7. Jeanne de Valois (1435–82), married the future John II, Duke of Bourbon in 1452. No issue. 8. Margaret of France (1437–38) 9. Mary of France (7 September 1438 – 14 February 1439) 10. Jeanne (7 September 143...

    Odette de Champdivers {1390-1424} — formerly mistress to Charles VII's uncle Louis of Valois, Duke of Orleans and his father Charles VI of France
    Agnès Sorel, by whom he had three illegitimate daughters.
    Antoinette de Maignelais, cousin of Agnès Sorel.
    Appears as Charles the Dauphin in George Bernard Shaw's play Saint Joan
    Appears as the Dauphin in Maxwell Anderson's Joan of Lorraine
    Appears as a significant character in Thomas Keneally's novel "Blood Red, Sister Rose".
    Appears as 'The Dauphin' in William Shakespeare's Henry VI Part I, and as 'King Charles' in Henry VI Part III.
    Hanawalt, Barbara, The Middle Ages: An Illustrated History
    Taylor, Aline, Isabel of Burgundy
  4. Charles VII was the King of France from 1422 to 1461. Also known as Charles The Well-served, or The Victorious, he ascended to the throne during a period of great political turmoil in France. He was born as the son of the French King Charles VI who was known to be of unstable mind. At that time the Hundred Years' War was going on between ...

  5. France - France - Charles VII: Charles VI’s son, Charles VII (reigned 1422–61), for his part, did not fail to claim his inheritance, though he had no proper coronation. Residing at Bourges, which his adversaries pretended was the extent of his realm, he in fact retained the fidelity of the greater part of France, including Berry, Poitou, Lyonnais, Auvergne, and Languedoc. For a time the ...

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