- Kings and Queens of England: Henry IVyoutube.com
- Henry IV Part II | Onstage Trailer | 2014 | Royal Shakespeare Companyyoutube.com
- Feature trailer | Henry V | Royal Shakespeare Companyyoutube.com
- Tyrant - Ep: 4 | Henry - Mind Of A Tyrant | BBC Documentaryyoutube.com
Henry IV, king of England from 1399 to 1413, the first of three 15th-century monarchs from the house of Lancaster. He gained the crown by usurpation and successfully consolidated his power in the face of repeated uprisings of powerful nobles. Learn more about Henry IV in this article.
- Birth & Family
- Rivalry with Richard II
- Seizure of The Throne
- The Long Parliament
- Death & Successor
Henry was born in April 1366 CE at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, the son of John of Gaunt (l. 1340-1399 CE), himself the son of Edward III of England(r. 1327-1377 CE) and so a claimant for the throne of Richard II (who was the grandson of Edward III and the son of Edward the Black Prince, l. 1330-1376 CE). John was a powerful but unpopular figure who had been passed over for the throne because he had supported corrupt nobles and officials identified by Parliament. Henry Bolingbroke’s mother was Blanche of Lancaster, daughter of the Duke of Lancaster. The young nobleman was given the title Earl of Derby, the first of many he would acquire over his career. Henry married Mary of Bohun (b. c. 1369 CE) on 5 February 1381 CE, but she died during childbirth in 1394 CE. The couple’s most famous son was Henry, future Henry V, born on 16 September 1387 CE. Henry, now king, married again on 7 February 1403 CE, this time to Joan of Navarre (l. c. 1370-1437 CE). Henry had a typical noble u...
By 1386 CE Henry Bolingbroke had risen to be one of the foremost barons in England, and he was a member of the disgruntled group of noblemen who took exception to the king’s favouritism towards Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford. Richard had made the hugely unpopular de Vere the Duke of Ireland in December 1387 CE. The dissatisfied barons made their move by defeating de Vere and his supporters at the Battleof Radcot Bridge near Oxford. Henry was then one of the five Lords Appellant who called the ‘Merciless Parliament’ to take power away from the still young Richard II. The king would get his revenge, though, in 1397 CE when, older, wiser and more secure on his throne, he rounded up the conspirators and had them executed or exiled. Henry, the king’s cousin, was, fortunately for him, in the latter category. Initially, it seemed Henry had survived the king’s purge, but a quarrel between Bolingbroke and Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk - the two surviving Lords Appellant, which was engineer...
Henry set off from Boulogne and landed at Spurn Head northeast England with a small army, perhaps only 300 men, and then marched south to press his claim in June-July 1399 CE. The timing of the invasion was excellent because Richard was then away in Ireland. Without their king, the royalist support faded away, perhaps, too, because Richard had never been all that popular with his odd choice of court companions and distinct lack of verve in taking the warto the French during the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE). The war with the French had started fantastically well for England but by Richard’s reign, Charles V of France, aka Charles the Wise (r. 1364-1380 CE), had ensured that the only lands left in France belonging to the English Crown were Calais and a thin slice of Gascony. French pirates were running riot in the English Channel and many English barons wanted a more direct war than the fizzled-out one they were currently witnessing. Richard failed in two of the most important ar...
Henry faced an immediate crisis in September 1400 CE in Wales where Owain Glyn Dwr (b. c. 1359 CE) had declared himself the Prince of Wales. Even more ominously, the Welshman had the support of The Earl of March, whose son Edmund Mortimer, as the great-great-grandson of Edward III, was a possible claimant to Henry’s throne. Also supporting the Welsh were the French taking, as usual, any opportunity to destabilise the English throne. Meanwhile, English barons were plotting a rebellion of their own in England. The group of discontents included such notable names as the Earl of Worcester, the Earl of Northumberland, and the celebrated medieval knightSir Henry ‘Hotspur’ Percy (1364-1403 CE). Henry first turned to the English problem and met in battle the rebellious barons on 21 July 1403 CE at the Battle of Shrewsbury. The king’s army was victorious, Henry fought with courage, Sir Percy was killed and Worcester executed. The Earl of Northumberland, Earl of March, and other rebel barons...
Another source of friction at court was the king’s relationship with Parliament. The so-called ‘Long Parliament’ of 1406 CE sat an unusually long time from March until December as it deliberated over the ever-prickly issue of state finances. Parliament was not impressed with the lack of success against the Welsh rebels or the presence of French troops in Wales. The king’s high taxes were not yielding any results on the field of battle, the court spending was considered excessive, and Parliament insisted that, at the very least, the king must listen to its concerns before endorsing a new round of taxes. Thus, the ‘Long Parliament’ was another small step on the long road to a constitutional monarchy.
Henry IV died on 20 March 1413 CE. He was only around 46 and had been wasting away, wracked by disease - possibly leprosy or severe eczema - since 1406 CE. In addition, the king suffered multiple strokes at the end of his life and this when his mind had already long been troubled with remorse for his treatment of King Richard. He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral. Henry was succeeded by his 25-year-old son, Henry V of England who was crowned in Westminster Abbey on 9 April 1413 CE. Henry V became one of the great fighting monarchs of European history by defeating the French at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 CE and going on to capture Normandy and Paris. However, his reign would be brief, cut short by illness, and the ousting of the legitimate King Richard would come to haunt the Lancaster descendants as the two houses of Lancaster and York battled for the throne in what became known as the Wars of the Roses(1455-1487 CE).
- Mark Cartwright
Henry IV (April 3, 1367 – March 20, 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland 1399–1413. He was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, hence, the other name by which he was known, Henry Bolingbroke.
King Henry IV of England was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. He was the first monarch of the House of Lancaster and came to the throne by deposing his childhood playmate and first cousin, King Richard II of England.
Jul 06, 2017 · Henry IV was noted for: Usurping the English crown from Richard II, beginning the Lancastrian dynasty and planting the seeds of the Wars of the Roses. Henry also took part in a notable conspiracy against Richard's closest associates earlier in his reign.
Jan 22, 2019 · Genealogy profile for Henry IV of England Henry IV of Bolingbroke, King of England (1367 - 1413) - Genealogy Genealogy for Henry IV of Bolingbroke, King of England (1367 - 1413) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives.
Once back in England, Henry was joined by the Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland, which placed him in a position with an army of 60,000 men. Henry and Richard met in battle and Richard was defeated, taken prisoner, and eventually deposed as King. Henry was then hailed as King of England taking the name Henry IV.
- England Under Henry IV 1399-1413
- England Under Henry V 1413-22
- England Under The Regency 1422-37
- England Under Henry Vi 1437-53
- England’s War of The Roses 1453-61
After the death of Duke John of Gaunt on February 3, 1399 King Richard II confiscated his property while his son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke of Lancaster, was in exile. When Richard II went to Ireland, Henry returned from France to Yorkshire in July to claim his inheritance. He gained support in the north. When Richard came back on July 28, his followers dwindled. Henry’s men seized Richard on August 19. As Steward of England Henry began issuing legal forms in the King’s name. Richard II sign...
Henry of Monmouth succeeded his father and became Henry V on March 21, 1413 at the age of 25. On April 9 he announced that all malefactors could be pardoned by August 1 except for rape, murder, reprobates, and those awaiting trial. On May 10 he ordered that no bows, arrows, arms, or artillery were to be sold to Scots or to any foreign enemies. In December he had the body of Richard II moved to Westminster next to that of Queen Ann of Bohemia. He restored the earldom of Northumberland to Hotspur’s son Henry Percy. A convocation in March 1413 charged Henry’s old friend John Oldcastle because one of his chaplains had been preaching heresy in Kent and because he was caught with heretical tracts. The King tried to get him to submit, but he refused. Archbishop Arundel of Canterbury had him arrested on September 23 and brought him before ecclesiastical judges at St. Paul’s. Oldcastle doubted bread was changed, did not believe that confession is necessary for salvation, and said the hierarc...
Henry V’s will named his youngest brother Humphrey, Earl of Gloucester, to be regent during the childhood of King Henry VI. After Henry V’s death his brother Duke John of Bedford stayed in France along with the earls of Salisbury and Suffolk. On September 28 a group of leading magnates summoned the aristocrats to swear fealty before the infant Henry VI. A larger council met on November 5, and a commission authorized Gloucester to open, conduct, and dissolve Parliament de assensu concilii. He objected to this phrase but accepted the petition. In his dying days Henry V had made Bedford responsible for the government of Normandy. Duke Philippe of Burgundy was to be regent of France; but when he declined, Bedford was authorized to govern France also. The 1422 Parliament appointed Gloucester protector and defender of the realm and the Church in England and the principal counselor of the King except when Bedford was in England. Thus the spiritual and temporal lords established themselves...
On November 13, 1437 Henry VI was vested with his personal power of kingship, and eight days later he reappointed the Council. Henry had already been making decisions for two years, but at age 16 he was a nervous invalid. By 1438 Adam Moleyns was acting as the King’s secretary. Henry was well educated, knowing French as well as Latin and studying the traditional virtues. He was very pious and intended to remain a virgin until he married. Henry founded Eton on October 11, 1440 with a provost, 10 priests, 4 clerks, 6 choristers, 25 scholars, and 25 paupers to pray for him. The previous month he had acquired land at Cambridge for King’s College, and he founded it in 1441. The young King was compassionate and often pardoned criminals, even traitors and murderers. In the early 1440s the Council became concerned how he distributed political favors, and in 1444 they introduced more discipline to the procedures for dealing with bills and petitions. Gradually the King began yielding patronag...
On November 23, 1453 the Council had Duke Edmund Beaufort of Somerset put in the Tower, and the Earl of Devon was released from Wallingford castle and rejoined the Council which accepted his declarations of innocence. Richard of York was now ascendant in the Council, and on February 13, 1454 the Council nominated him to be the King’s lieutenant to preside over Parliament which gathered at Westminster the next day. Various English aristocrats were raising private armies. Queen Margaret led Somerset’s faction and demanded that the government be put in her hands; but Speaker Thomas Thorp had been weakened by a £1,000 fine from an action brought against him by York. Chancellor Kemp died on March 22, and the great seals of England could not be used. On March 27 the peers nominated Richard of York to be protector and defender of the realm with an annual salary of 2,000 marks plus expenses. He asked for the cooperation of the lords, and the Council established itself as a presidency until...