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  1. 1 day ago · Malcolm IV of Scotland. "~ Martel " ( Old French, "The Hammer"): Charles Martel of the Franks. Geoffrey II of Anjou. Geoffrey IV of Anjou. "~ the Man": John II of Portugal ( Spanish: Juan el Hombre, a nickname given to him by Isabella of Castile) "~ the Martyr": Edward the Martyr of England. King Charles I of England.

  2. › wiki › NicosiaNicosia - Wikipedia

    1 day ago · Nicosia is the financial and business heart of Cyprus. The city hosts the headquarters of all Cypriot banks namely the former Cyprus Popular Bank (also known as Laiki Bank), Bank of Cyprus, the Hellenic Bank. Further, the Central Bank of Cyprus is located in the Acropolis area of the Cypriot capital.

    • Republic of Cyprus, Northern Cyprus (Recognised only by Turkey)
    • Nicosian
    • +357 22
    • 220 m (720 ft)
    • Historiography and Periodization
    • History
    • Late Medieval European Society
    • Military History
    • Christian Conflict and Reform
    • Trade and Commerce
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    • Ottomans and Europe
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    The term "Late Middle Ages" refers to one of the three periods of the Middle Ages, along with the Early Middle Ages and the High Middle Ages. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodization in his History of the Florentine People (1442). Flavio Biondo used a similar framework in Decades of History from the Deterioration of th...

    The limits of Christian Europe were still being defined in the 14th and 15th centuries. While the Grand Duchy of Moscow was beginning to repel the Mongols, and the Iberian kingdoms completed the Reconquista of the peninsula and turned their attention outwards, the Balkans fell under the dominance of the Ottoman Empire.Meanwhile, the remaining natio...

    Around 1300–1350 the Medieval Warm Period gave way to the Little Ice Age. The colder climate resulted in agricultural crises, the first of which is known as the Great Famine of 1315–1317. The demographic consequences of this famine, however, were not as severe as the plagues that occurred later in the century, particularly the Black Death. Estimate...

    Through battles such as Courtrai (1302), Bannockburn (1314), and Morgarten (1315), it became clear to the great territorial princes of Europe that the military advantage of the feudal cavalry was lost, and that a well equipped infantry was preferable. Through the Welsh Wars the English became acquainted with, and adopted, the highly efficient longb...

    The Papal Schism

    The French crown's increasing dominance over the Papacy culminated in the transference of the Holy See to Avignon in 1309. When the Pope returned to Rome in 1377, this led to the election of different popes in Avignon and Rome, resulting in the Papal Schism (1378–1417).The Schism divided Europe along political lines; while France, her ally Scotland and the Spanish kingdoms supported the Avignon Papacy, France's enemy England stood behind the Pope in Rome, together with Portugal, Scandinavia a...

    Protestant Reformation

    Though many of the events were outside the traditional time period of the Middle Ages, the end of the unity of the Western Church (the Protestant Reformation), was one of the distinguishing characteristics of the medieval period. The Catholic Church had long fought against heretic movements, but during the Late Middle Ages, it started to experience demands for reform from within. The first of these came from Oxford professor John Wycliffe in England. Wycliffe held that the Bible should be the...

    The increasingly dominant position of the Ottoman Empire in the eastern Mediterranean presented an impediment to trade for the Christian nations of the west, who in turn started looking for alternatives. Portuguese and Spanish explorers found new trade routes – south of Africa to India, and across the Atlantic Ocean to America. As Genoese and Venet...

    In the 14th century, the predominant academic trend of scholasticism was challenged by the humanist movement. Though primarily an attempt to revitalise the classical languages, the movement also led to innovations within the fields of science, art and literature, helped on by impulses from Byzantine scholars who had to seek refuge in the west after...

    By the end of the 15th century the Ottoman Empire had advanced all over Southeastern Europe, eventually conquering the Byzantine Empire and extending control over the Balkan states. Hungary was the last bastion of the Latin Christian world in the East, and fought to keep its rule over a period of two centuries. After the death of the young king Vla...

    Dates are approximate, consult particular articles for details Middle Ages Themes Other themes 14th century 15th century

    Peasants in fields Très Riches Heures.
    Joan of Arc (Hundred Years' War)
    Charles I (Kingdom of Hungary)
    Jan Hus (Bohemian Reformation)
  3. Nov 27, 2022 · 勃艮第的琼三世(1308 年 5 月 1 日至 1347 年 8 月 10 日),也被称为法兰西的琼,是 1330 年至 1349 年在位的勃艮第和阿图瓦伯爵夫人,她也是勃艮第公爵夫人,与公爵奥多四世结婚勃艮第。

  4. Nov 27, 2022 · "We have followed the history of Marie Antoinette with the greatest diligence and scrupulosity. We have lived in those times. We have talked with some of her friends and some of her enemies; we have read, certainly not all, but hundreds of the libels written against her; and we have, in short, examined her life with– if we may be allowed to say so of ourselves– something of the accuracy of ...

  5. Nov 26, 2022 · Regardez le Salaire Mensuel de Maganon en temps réel. Combien gagne t il d argent ? Sa fortune s élève à 10 000,00 euros mensuels

  6. Nov 27, 2022 · Marie-Antoinette Josèphe Jeanne de Habsbourg-Lorraine, née le 2 novembre 1755 à Vienne en Autriche et morte guillotinée le 16 octobre 1793 sur la place de la Révolution à Paris, est reine de France et de Navarre de 1774 à 1791, puis reine des Français de 1791 à 1792. Elle est la dernière reine de l’Ancien Régime. Partagez sur les réseaux :

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